...Buddhism for Urban America
Urban Dharma Newsletter... November 4, 2003
This Issue: Special Issue - The Jhanas
What is the Purpose of Jhana Meditation?
2. BUDDHIST MEDITATION: Stages of Mindfulness and Aborsption
3. The Five Hindrances (Nivarana) ...Venerable Ajahn Brahmavamso
4. Temple/Center/Website- of the Week: The Wangapeka Study and
5. Book/CD/Movie Review: Analysis of the Jhãnas in Theravãda
Buddhist Meditation - Ven. H. Gunaratana
What is the Purpose of Jhana Meditation? A reflection on
the need to develop calm and concentration. -- by Catherine
are two distinct types of meditation: one leads to insight and
the other to the development of jhana or
concentration through tranquillity. If you develop insight deeply
enough, you will eventually come to tranquillity. And if you
develop tranquillity deeply enough, you will eventually come
to insight. The end is the same, but the way of getting there
types of meditation have their advocates; some of those advocates,
historically, have cast aspersions on the other type of practice.
This is shortsighted and prejudicial. It does not take into
account the importance of applying the correct technique for
unfoldment to the individual psyche.
of the early practices popularized in the West have been insight
practices (e.g. certain breath practices and the Zen system).
These are techniques designed to wake you up, sometimes rather
the way a cold bath in the morning can stimulate you into new
modalities of awareness and understanding. They sometimes deal
in a kind of shock technique, startling you out of complacency
and opening mental doors. There is no doubt that this is an
important aspect of Path study, at times, for we can get very
comfortable and set in our mental and physical patternings.
They are good for developing self-discipline, as they are frequently
rigid in form but often come with a demanding autocratic master.
of my early life as a meditator, I was trained in such ways,
for my teacher's reasoning was that I was a parent and struggling
with kids and the wandering life and therefore, it was useless
to try to gain tranquillity. However, I was a bundle of nerves.
As soon as my life settled into a daily pattern I took up tranquillity
meditations for the next six years in order to calm the formations
so that the lifestream could become more integrated.
the years since then, as I developed as a teacher, I began to
switch my initial teaching from insight practices to tranquillity
ones. I have come to honour this road of tranquillity meditations
leading, later, to insight practices, as a road perhaps better
suited to our culture. I have met a considerable number of people
who have been fried by vigorous insight practices applied rigorously
without modification to all students, without regard for individual
needs or capacities. Some beings are too fragile for these techniques
and some have experienced even severe mental disturbance in
these meditation pressure-cooker courses.
is a testament to how brave (or perhaps foolhardy) we are as
a culture that we think we can forge into these ancient systems
without reflection on the present conditions and needs. Indeed,
we are forgetting the original purpose of Buddhist practice
when we do this, which is to bring people out of suffering,
not put them in deeper.
a culture, we are very adept at critical sight, picking up on
flaws and faults with ease (usually other people's). This turn
of mind naturally tends us towards the pathways of insight,
with its capacity to explode stuck mental formations and its
ability to see deeply into the laws of nature and the patternings
of oppression. However, this journey can and frequently does
make us more edgy, more critical and often more arrogant: the
razor-sharp mind can cut both ways. Eventually, we see into
the nature of the self, how illusory and non-solid it is, and
our arrogance and critical stance begins to fall away.
this process can take a very long time. Because we are forced
to work with the operative ego in the world, illusion or no,
that cloak of arrogant self-assurance can become a permanent
part of our persona. This unfortunate presentation of self can,
in some individuals, manifest even as we pay lip-service the
illusion of self and speak of the law of interdependent arising
and the importance of the compassionate response. Compassion
seems to me that we are encouraging the maelstrom of frenzied
human endeavour to continue, defining ourselves as being right
or "visionary" while refraining from engaging in a
correction of what is really wrong in our culture. The predominant
error that I see is still the lack of love between one human
and another, between one country and another, between humankind
and the planet we inhabit. We are still engaged in dominance
and submission issues when clearly the deep seeing of the absolute
interdependence of nature should be cause of opening our hearts
deeper and deeper into the mystery of life and death in all
its pain and solace.
meditations address this requirement. Through the development
of calm and deep concentration the student comes to what T.
S. Eliot in The Four Quartets called the "still
point of the turning world". We learn to return to this
place of connection when the world is frazzled. We learn to
hold our hearts open in the most distressing of moments. We
learn through deepening concentration not to be distracted from
our place of focus and thus become more efficient and effective
at what we choose to do.
we clearly develop a knowledge of the various states of concentration,
called jhanas, we can train ourselves to expand this
field of concentration until eventually we are able to do many
wonderful things with our minds. The capacity to alter formation
leads us to learn how to heal. The ability to expand mind over
great distances develops from this study. And the ability to
understand other realms begins here, too.
setting aside these extraordinary abilities, developing the
meditations of tranquillity bring substantial benefits in the
ordinary world. Without calm and concentration, how can we be
at the bedside of a sick or dying friend? How can we help a
crying and distraught child? How can we move through the corporate
world with resilience and wellbeing? How can we attend an audition
or a job interview without losing our focus? And, at the end
of our days, how can we learn to be content in the "Land
of Be" when we can no longer "Do"?
a final benefit that comes with the clear development of the
jhanas is their ability to give us rest: to bring us
into such a state of quietude that our body rhythms are re-nourished
and refreshed. When I returned here 21 years ago, I thought
the pace of life in Canada was unreasonably hectic. Today it
is exponentially worse. Where will this end but in illness and
death? - unless we teach ourselves to rest, to reflect and to
respond with a new voice.
of the ways to develop these states of calm concentration is
a teaching called "The Divine Abidings". Through the
development of loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy
we form a platform of calm and concentration which, when deepened,
will give rise to equanimity.
this equanimity can become so profound that, though we may be
rocked by life, we will never stray off course for too long.
We will have developed the capacity to return again and again
to our deepest core where the compassionate and aware human
dwells: heart open, hands ready to help all those in need.
MANGALAM - ALL BLESSINGS.
BUDDHIST MEDITATION: Stages of Mindfulness and Aborsption
...PRESENTED BY ...the Wanderling
OF CONCENTRATION LEADING TO ABSORPTION
with BOTTOM of list "A," and work up:
NIRODHA (cessation, extinction)
cessation of all psychomental activity; complete suppression
of all samsaric conditionality; complete tranquillity "on
the edge of the world" without, however, "going over"
to Nirvana. Can last several days. Nirodha is
attained after passing through the four formless absorptions,
but only an Arahant can achieve Nirodha.
JHANA OR DHYANA WITHOUT FORM (arupa
jhana): absorption without form, leading to increasing rarefaction
or incorporeality (similar to Patanjali's asamprajnata
samadhi. Asamprajnata-samadhi is sometimes known in
Vedanta circles as nirvikalpa-samadhi).
Asamprajnata-samadhi is generally considered to incorporate
the following four Jhanas within its scope:
Eighth Jhana: jhana beyond perception and nonperception
Seventh Jhana: jhana of pure emptiness (akinci,
lit. "nothingness") ken-shu-chi.
Sixth Jhana: jhana of pure expansive consciousness
Fifth Jhana: jhana of boundless space (anantakasa).
JHANA OR DHYANA WITH FORM (rupa):
absorption in supporting content (similar to Patanjali's samprajnata
samadhi). Samprajnata-samadhi is generally considered
to incorporate the following four Jhanas within its scope:
Fourth Jhana: delete sense of well-being, leaving absorbed
Third Jhana: delete joy, leaving equanimity and sense of
Second Jhana: delete mental activity, leaving joy and sense
First Jhana: mental activity, joy, and sense of well-being.
ACCESS CONCENTRATION (upacara samadhi): powerful,
unwavering attention on the focal object.
when the Five Hindrances are overcome it is called Upacara
Samadhi, known also as "neighborhood concentration."
That is, Neighbourhood Samadhi, where you are right NEXT
to Jhanas but not fully in them. It's like being in the
entrance to a hall...you have to pass over the entrance, the
neighborhood, to come into the room. And also you have to pass
over it as you go out. These are Upacaras, neighborhoods.
TRANQUILLITY (samatha or shamatha):
the practice of one-pointed mental attention.
It is said that the path of tranquillity-concentration-absorption
can lead to supernormal powers (e.g., extrasensory perception,
knowledge of previous lives). All of the attainments of this
path, however, are considered samsaric. Buddhism holds that
absorption by itself cannot lead to Nirvana. It is, rather,
the path of Mindfulness-Insight that is said to lead
to Nirvana. The mastery of "access concentration,"
however, is said to be an effective means to more stable mindfulness,
and the mastery of the higher absorptive states is said to be
an effective means to deeper insight. In a similar vein, please
comepare the above with: Joriki, as well as Siddhi.
In Buddhism, the meditative stages of samatha
(or shamatha: tranquillity), Samadhi (specifically,
access concentration: upacara samadhi), and jhana
[Pali] or dhyana [Sanskrit] (absorption) correspond
roughly to Patanjali's dharana, dhyana, Samadhi, respectively.
In Buddhism, it is usually 'jhana' or 'dhyana',
but sometimes also 'samadhi', that is used for absorption.
Samadhi, understood as means of access to absorption,
is usually considered a precondition of absorption (jhana/dhyana).
prior to the threshold of Tranquility, and sometimes in an overlap
of early stages and sometimes indistinguishable is a preliminary
or early stage called 'Laya'. Laya is a mental state
of quietude easily slipped into that occurs usually in the course
of spiritual practice. The experience is temporary as the arrest
of thoughts return the moment the pressure is released. The
stillness comes and goes. The experience is pleasant and can
be sought about by `deep concentration' and/or breath regulation.
It happens, therefore, with one's own volition. It can be repeated
by the practitioner and it can also equally be dropped if it
is considerd unnecessary or obstructive to further progress.
'Entering into Laya' can be a clear sign of one's progress ---
the danger lies in mistaking it for the final goal of spiritual
practice and being thus deceived.
(without) + rodha (prison, confine, obstacle, wall, impediment):
without impediment, free of confinement
word Nirodha has been translated as "cessation"
for so long that it has become standard practice, and any deviation
from it leads to queries. For the most part this standard translation
is for the sake of convenience as well as to avoid confusing
it for other Pali terms (apart from lack of a better word).
In fact, however, this rendering of the word "Nirodha"
as "ceased" can in many instances be a mis-rendering
of the text.
speaking, the word "cease" means to do away with something
which has already arisen, or the stopping of something which
has already begun. However, Nirodha in the teaching of
Dependent Origination (as also in dukkhanirodha,
the third of the Four Noble Truths) means the non-arising, or
non-existence, of something because the cause of its arising
is done away with. For example, the phrase "when avijja
is Nirodha, sankhara are also Nirodha,"
which is usually taken to mean "with the cessation of ignorance,
volitional impulses cease," in fact means "when there
is no ignorance, or no arising of ignorance, or when there is
no longer any problem with ignorance, there are no volitional
impulses, volitional impulses do not arise, or there is no longer
any problem with volitional impulses." It does not mean
that ignorance already arisen must be done away with before
the volitional impulses which have already arisen will also
be done away with.
Nirodha should be rendered as cessation is when it is
used in reference to the natural way of things, or the nature
of compounded things. In this sense it is a synonym for the
words bhanga, breaking up, anicca, transient,
khaya, cessation or vaya, decay. For example,
in the Pali it is given: imam kho bhikkhave tisso vedana
anicca sankhata paticcasamuppanna khayadhamma vayadhamma viragadhamma
nirodhadhamma: "Monks, these three kinds of feeling
are naturally impermanent, compounded, dependently arisen, transient,
subject to decay, dissolution, fading and cessation."[S.IV.214]
(All of the factors occurring in the Dependent Origination cycle
have the same nature.) In this instance, the meaning is "all
conditioned things (sankhara), having arisen, must inevitably
decay and fade according to supporting factors." There
is no need to try to stop them, they cease of themselves. Here
the intention is to describe a natural condition which, in terms
of practice, simply means "that which arises can be done
for Nirodha in the third Noble Truth (or the Dependent
Origination cycle in cessation mode), although it also describes
a natural process, its emphasis is on practical considerations.
It is translated in two ways in the Visuddi Magga. One
way traces the etymology to "ni" (without) + "rodha"
(prison, confine, obstacle, wall, impediment), thus rendering
the meaning as "without impediment," "free of
confinement." This is explained as "free of impediments,
that is, the confinement of Samsara." Another definition
traces the origin to anuppada, meaning "not arising",
and goes on to say "Nirodha here does not mean bhanga,
breaking up and dissolution."
translating Nirodha as "cessation", although
not entirely wrong, is nevertheless not entirely accurate. On
the other hand, there is no other word which comes so close
to the essential meaning as "cessation." However,
we should understand what is meant by the term. In this context,
the Dependent Origination cycle in its cessation mode might
be better rendered as "being free of ignorance, there is
freedom from volitional impulses ..." or "when ignorance
is gone, volitional impulses are gone ..." or "when
ignorance ceases to give fruit, volitional impulses cease to
give fruit ..." or "when ignorance is no longer a
problem, volitional impulses are no longer a problem."
following was written by Zen-Bodhisattva, past editor of Cyber
is a sanskrit word NIRODHA discribed usually as cessation
that carries with it a more indepth meaning. In the index of
the Visuddi Magga, for example, there are over twenty-five references
that need to be read in context inorder to cull out a fuller
more concise meaning. Briefly, like Deep Samadhi, it is a very,
very high degree non-meditative meditative state. During Nirodha
there is no time squence whether a couple hours pass or seven
days, as the immediate moment preceding and immediately following
seem as though in rapid succession, start and finish compressed
wafer thin. During, heartbeat and metabolism continue to slow
and practically cease, sometimes continuing below the threshold
of preception at a risidual level. Previosly stored body energy
that would typically be consumed in a couple of hours if not
replenished can last days with very little need for renewal.
The Visuddhi Magga cites several instances where villagers came
across a bhikkhu in such a state and built a funeral pyre for
him, even to the point of lighting it. During low-level residual
states the body temperature drops well below the 98.6 degree
point. If suddenly jarred to consciousness body metabolism is
slower to regain it's normal temperature, and inturn, that is
recorded by the quicker to return cognative senses as "being
The Five Hindrances (Nivarana) ...Venerable Ajahn Brahmavamso
The major obstacles to successful meditation and liberating
insight take the form of one or more of the Five Hindrances.
The whole practice leading to Enlightenment can be well expressed
as the effort to overcome the Five Hindrances, at first suppressing
them temporarily in order to experience Jhana and Insight, and
then overcoming them permanently through the full development
of the Noble Eightfold Path.
what are these Five Hindrances? They are:
VYAPADA: Ill Will
THINA-MIDDHA: Sloth and Torpor
UDDHACCA-KUKKUCCA: Restlessness and Remorse
Sensory desire refers to that particular type of wanting
that seeks for happiness through the five senses of sight, sound,
smell, taste and physical feeling. It specifically excludes
any aspiration for happiness through the sixth sense of mind
In its extreme form, sensory desire is an obsession to find
pleasure in such things as sexual intimacy, good food or fine
music. But it also includes the desire to replace irritating
or even painful five-sense experiences with pleasant ones, i.e.
the desire for sensory comfort.
The Lord Buddha compared sensory desire to taking out a loan.
Any pleasure one experiences through these five senses must
be repaid through the unpleasantness of separation, loss or
hungry emptiness which follow relentlessly when the pleasure
is used up. As with any loan, there is also the matter of interest
and thus, as the Lord Buddha said, the pleasure is small compared
to the suffering repaid.
In meditation, one transcends sensory desire for the period
by letting go of concern for this body and its five sense activity.
Some imagine that the five senses are there to serve and protect
the body, but the truth is that the body is there to serve the
five senses as they play in the world ever seeking delight.
Indeed, the Lord Buddha once said, "The five senses ARE
the world" and to leave the world, to enjoy the other worldly
bliss of Jhana, one must give up for a time ALL concern for
the body and its five senses.
When sensory desire is transcended, the mind of the meditator
has no interest in the promise of pleasure or even comfort with
this body. The body disappears and the five senses all switch
off. The mind becomes calm and free to look within. The difference
between the five sense activity and its transcendence is like
the difference between looking out of a window and looking in
a mirror. The mind that is free from five sense activity can
truly look within and see itsreal nature. Only from that can
wisdom arise as to what we are, from where and why?!
Ill will refers to the desire to punish, hurt or destroy.
It includes sheer hatred of a person, or even a situation, and
it can generate so much energy that it is both seductive and
addictive. At the time, it always appears justified for such
is its power that it easily corrupts our ability to judge fairly.
It also includes ill will towards oneself, otherwise known as
guilt, which denies oneself any possibility of happiness. In
meditation, ill will can appear as dislike towards the meditation
object itself, rejecting it so that one's attention is forced
to wander elsewhere.
The Lord Buddha likened ill will to being sick. Just as sickness
denies one the freedom and happiness of health, so ill will
denies one the freedom and happiness of peace. Ill will is overcome
by applying Metta, loving kindness. When it is ill will towards
a person, Metta teaches one to see more in that person than
all that which hurts you, to understand why that person hurt
you (often because they were hurting intensely themselves),
and encourages one to put aside one's own pain to look with
compassion on the other. But if this is more than one can do,
Metta to oneself leads one to refuse to dwell in ill will to
that person, so as to stop them from hurting you further with
the memory of those deeds. Similarly, if it is ill will towards
oneself, Metta sees more than one's own faults, can understand
one's own faults, and finds the courage to forgive them, learn
from their lesson and let them go. Then, if it is ill will towards
the mediation object (often the reason why a meditator cannot
find peace) Metta embraces the meditation object with care and
delight. For example, just as a mother has a natural Metta towards
her child, so a meditator can look on their breath, say, with
the very same quality of caring attention. Then it will be just
as unlikely to lose the breath through forgetfulness as it is
unlikely for a mother to forget her baby in the shopping mall,
and it would be just as improbable to drop the breath for some
distracting thought as it is for a distracted mother to drop
her baby! When ill will is overcome, it allows lasting relationships
with other people, with oneself and, in meditation, a lasting,
enjoyable relationship with the meditation object, one that
can mature into the full embrace of absorption.
Sloth and torpor refers to that heaviness of body and dullness
of mind which drag one down into disabling inertia and thick
depression. The Lord Buddha compared it to being imprisoned
in a cramped, dark cell, unable to move freely in the bright
sunshine outside. In meditation, it causes weak and intermittent
mindfulness which can even lead to falling asleep in meditation
without even realizing it!
Sloth and torpor is overcome by rousing energy. Energy is always
available but few know how to turn on the switch, as it were.
Setting a goal, a reasonable goal, is a wise and effective way
to generate energy, as is deliberately developing interest in
the task at hand. A young child has a natural interest, and
consequent energy, because its world is so new. Thus, if one
can learn to look at one's life, or one's meditation, with a
'beginner's mind' one can see ever new angles and fresh possibilities
which keep one distant from sloth and torpor, alive and energetic.
Similarly, one can develop delight in whatever one is doing
by training one's perception to see the beautiful in the ordinary,
thereby generating the interest which avoids the half-death
that is sloth and torpor.
The mind has two main functions, 'doing' and 'knowing'. The
way of meditation is to calm the 'doing' to complete tranquillity
while maintaining the 'knowing'. Sloth and torpor occur when
one carelessly calms both the 'doing' and the 'knowing', unable
to distinguish between them.
Sloth and torpor is a common problem which can creep up and
smother one slowly. A skilful meditator keeps a sharp look-out
for the first signs of sloth and torpor and is thus able to
spot its approach and take evasive action before it's too late.
Like coming to a fork in a road, one can take that mental path
leading away from sloth and torpor. Sloth and torpor is an unpleasant
state of body and mind, too stiff to leap into the bliss of
Jhana and too blinded to spot any insights. In short, it is
a complete waste of precious time.
Restlessness refers to a mind which is like a monkey, always
swinging on to the next branch, never able to stay long with
anything. It is caused by the fault-finding state of mind which
cannot be satisfied with things as they are, and so has to move
on to the promise of something better, forever just beyond.
The Lord Buddha compared restlessness to being a slave, continually
having to jump to the orders of a tyrannical boss who always
demands perfection and so never lets one stop. Restlessness
is overcome by developing contentment, which is the opposite
of fault-finding. One learns the simple joy of being satisfied
with little, rather than always wanting more. One is grateful
for this moment, rather than picking out its deficiencies. For
instance, in meditation restlessness is often the impatience
to move quickly on to the next stage. The fastest progress,
though is achieved by those who are content with the stage they
are on now. It is the deepening of that contentment that ripens
into the next stage. So be careful of 'wanting to get on with
it' and instead learn how to rest in appreciative contentment.
That way, the 'doing' disappears and the meditation blossoms.
Remorse refers to a specific type of restlessness which is the
kammic effect of one's misdeeds. The only way to overcome remorse,
the restlessness of a bad conscience, is to purify one's virtue
and become kind, wise and gentle. It is virtually impossible
for the immoral or the self indulgent to make deep progress
Doubt refers to the disturbing inner questions at a time
when one should be silently moving deeper. Doubt can question
one's own ability "Can I do This?", or question the
method "Is this the right way?", or even question
the meaning "What is this?". It should be remembered
that such questions are obstacles to meditation because they
are asked at the wrong time and thus become an intrusion, obscuring
The Lord Buddha likened doubt to being lost in a desert, not
recognizing any landmarks. Such doubt is overcome by gathering
clear instructions, having a good map, so that one can recognize
the subtle landmarks in the unfamiliar territory of deep meditation
and so know which way to go. Doubt in one's ability is overcome
by nurturing self confidence with a good teacher. A meditation
teacher is like a coach who convinces the sports team that they
can succeed. The Lord Buddha stated that one can, one will,
reach Jhana and Enlightenment if one carefully and patiently
follows the instructions. The only uncertainty is 'when'! Experience
also overcomes doubt about one's ability and also doubt whether
this is the right path. As one realized for oneself the beautiful
stages of the path, one discovers that one is indeed capable
of the very highest, and that this is the path that leads one
The doubt that takes the form of constant assessing "Is
this Jhana?" "How am I going?", is overcome by
realizing that such questions are best left to the end, to the
final couple of minutes of the meditation. A jury only makes
its judgment at the end of the trial, when all the evidence
has been presented. Similarly, a skilful meditator pursues a
silent gathering of evidence, reviewing it only at the end to
uncover its meaning.
The end of doubt, in meditation, is described by a mind which
has full trust in the silence, and so doesn't interfere with
any inner speech. Like having a good chauffeur, one sits silently
on the journey out of trust in the driver.
Any problem which arises in meditation will be one of these
Five Hindrances, or a combination. So, if one experiences any
difficulty, use the scheme of the Five Hindrances as a 'check
list' to identify the main problem. Then you will know the appropriate
remedy, apply it carefully, and go beyond the obstacle into
When the Five Hindrances are fully overcome, there is no barrier
between the meditator and the bliss of Jhana. Therefore, the
certain test that these Five Hindrances are really overcome
is the ability to access Jhana.
The Wangapeka Study and Retreat Centre
are located in the foothills of the Southern Alps overlooking
the Wangapeka River, about an hour and a half drive SW of Nelson,
is a place to study and deepen the process of Buddha Dharma,
the teaching of Compassion and Awareness.
Centre is available for individual healing and meditation retreats.
Group activities cover topics such as Meditation, Healing,
Therapy, Art and Craft work and various types of Body work. Courses
range from weekends to courses three months in length.
visitors comment on the peaceful and healing atmosphere at the
Centre. This is undoubtedly due to the natural beauty
of the place and the great amount of meditation that has been
done over the years. Possibly even more important than
this though, is the fact that so many people have given freely
from the heart to build a place that would be of benefit to
Analysis of the Jhãnas in Theravãda Buddhist Meditation
- Ven. H. Gunaratana (1.3
MB) Download this free eBook in PDF at: http://www.urbandharma.org/pdf/scrnguna.pdf
anyone interested in the Jhanas, this is a must have!!! (and
work, by Ven. Henepola Gunaratana, provides an analytical study
of the Jhãnas, as they are an important set of meditative
attainments in the contemplative discipline of Theravãda
Buddhism. Despite their frequent appearance in the texts, the
exact role of the Jhãnas in the Buddhist path has not been
settled with unanimity by Theravãda scholars, who are still
divided over the question as to whether they are necessary for
attaining Nibbana. The primary purpose of this dissertation
is to determine the precise role of the Jhãnas in the Theravãda
Buddhist presentation of the way to liberation.
source material the work relies upon the three principal classes
of authoritative Theravãda texts: the Pali Tipitaka, its
commentaries, and its sub-commentaries. To traditional canonical
investigations modern methods of philosophical and psychological
analysis are applied in order to clarify the meanings implicit
in the original sources. The examination covers two major areas:
first the dynamics of Jhãna attainment, and second, the
function of the Jhãnas in realizing the ultimate goal of
Buddhism, Nibbana or final liberation from suffering.
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