http://www.UrbanDharma.org ...Buddhism for Urban America


The Urban Dharma Newsletter... May 13, 2003


In This Issue:

2. Permanent Happiness ...Ven Sathindriya
3. Prosperity and Happiness- The Buddhist View
4. Temple/Center/Website- of the Week: Nalanda - An Ancient Buddhist University
5. Book Review: Buddhist Sutras:
Origin, Development, Transmission
...by Kogen Mizuno, Sono Seiritsu To Ten Kyoden
6. Peace Quote...


2. Permanent Happiness
...Ven Sathindriya

* http://www.glbvihara.org/teaching13.htm

Good afternoon. I am Bhante Sathi. I am Bhuddist monk from the Theravada tradition. I come from Sri Lanka, and now I am living in Southfield Michigan, at the Great Lakes Buddhist Vihara. It is nice to see you all today on this very beautiful afternoon. I hope you are all enjoying today's events.

First, I would like to share with you a short story:

One day a group of princes were having a picnic with some women friends. While having this picnic, the princes were indulging in luxuries of all kinds. In the midst of their sensual distractions, one of the women stole all of the princes' jewels. Upset by this action, the princes decided to chase after the woman. As they were chasing her they came across Buddha, who was taking a walk. They decided to ask Buddha, “Buddha, did you just see a woman come by, because one of our woman friends stole our jewels and ran off with them.” Buddha then asked them, “Why are you upset about this situation? What is  more valuable, to find yourself or to find someone with your jewels?”

They knew that Buddha was a wise man. He was not crazy for asking this question, so they carefully thought about it. After examining this question, they were able to reach permanent happiness, which is also called Nibbana or Nirvana.

Here is the interesting part about this story: Buddha only asked them this one simple question and yet they were able to understand the essence of the entire dharma. Now, you may be asking yourself, how could the entire dharma be found in one small question? They understood the entire dharma because by penetrating the very essence of that question, they were able to understand themselves. How did they come to understand themselves? They simply examined what they were doing and discovered who they really were.

After they decided to stop chasing after someone else to solve their problems, they looked inward to themselves. At that moment, they were living in the present moment. Being in the present moment brought them a real understanding of the nature of things. That is how they understood the entire dharma from only one question.

Buddhism is teaching us to be aware of the present moment and how to achieve permanent happiness. Buddha didn’t discover anything new, he simply realized the workings of living beings minds and the world. As human beings, we think that we can understand this world through our five senses, which are sight, sound, taste, touch, and hearing. However, if you look closely at your senses, you will see that they have limitations.

For example, some animals can see and hear better than us. Because of this, we have to know that our senses are not enough to understand the ultimate Truth. We can not understand this Truth simply by using our five senses. We have to learn to develop our mind. Whoever has developed their mind, has understood more things than an ordinary person. That is why Buddha once said, “All previous  Buddhas taught the same dharma and all future Buddhas will teach the same dharma.” If you can be in the present moment, then you will understand the entire dharma.

Usually, when we are doing one thing, our mind is somewhere else. Sometimes it is in the past; sometimes it is in the future. For example, maybe you are thinking about your lunch or a conversation you had this morning. Or what you are going to eat for dinner tonight. But, in reality, you are here. Words are coming out of my mouth, and into your ears. You are sitting, maybe some are standing. There are clouds in the sky, there is a gentle breeze blowing and you are  right here, right now... at this very moment. That, my dear friends, is the Truth! At any given moment, NOW is all that there truly IS.

In day-to-day life, sometimes we are consumed with suffering and sometimes we are filled with joy. Where did those two things come from? They came from your past or future. When you look at your joy or suffering, you will see that it is because you are dwelling on ideas from your past or future. Therefore, I would say that if you were able to constantly BE in the present moment, you would be able to understand the true nature of suffering or joy. This is not to say that you will not have emotions, but your emotions will not control you. They will arise and dissolve... like everything else. Since they won't control you, you will not be ruled by suffering or joy. This is known as "equanimity".

If we can successfully focus our mind on the present moment, this is called "mindfulness". Then, when we have an emotion, such as anger, we will be able to see how our mind is working. When we are frustrated, mindfulness will help us see why it is that we are frustrated. The same with an emotion like happiness. If we are mindful, then we can see why it is that we are happy. We can understand how our mind is working. If we can realize the present moment, then we can see how we are thinking and why we are doing different actions.

For example, how are we talking? How are we dealing with anger? And how much compassion do we have?

There was a man named Bahiya. He heard that he could see Buddha if he went to Gethawana. So he decided to go there. When he arrived, Buddha was leaving to collect food. He asked Buddha, "Buddha could you summarize the entire Dhamma so that I can understand?" Buddha knew that if he summarized the entire Dhamma, Bahiya would understand, so that is what Buddha did.

Buddha summarized, “Bahiya, Thus must you train yourself:

In the seen there will be just the seen.

In the heard there will be just the heard. 

In the sensed just the sensed. 

In the imagined just the imagined. 

Thus, you will have no “thereby”. That is how you must train yourself.

Now, Bahiya when in the seen there will be to you just the seen, 

in the heard just the heard, 

in the imagined just the imagined, 

in the cognized just the cognized, 

then, Bahiya, as you will have no “thereby” you will also have no “therein.”

As you, Bahiya, will have no "therein" you will have no “here” or  “beyond” or "midway between.” That, Bahiya, is the end of suffering."  Bahiya could control his mind, and understood the words of Buddha.

Through this understanding, he reached permanent happiness. If you can live in the present moment you will not worry, be unhappy, or be unsatisfied. You will see things clearly. You can reach permanent happiness. It is right here, right now, at this very moment in each and every one of you.

May you all be well and happy . May you all achieve permanent happiness.

3. Prosperity and Happiness- The Buddhist View

* http://www.lanka.net/bcc/pross.html

The Buddha's prescriptions for prosperity and happiness have been always laced with liberal doses of ethics. But sometimes the correlation between ethics and happiness is not very clear. The following pages try to make this connection.

The Buddha's attitude towards material wealth

Many people, including Buddhists, believe that Buddhism spurns the acquisition of material comforts and pleasure and is concerned only with spiritual development. The attainment of Nibbana is, indeed, the goal. However, the Buddha was very much alive to the fact that economic stability is essential for man's welfare and happiness.

In the Anguttaranikaya (A.II. (69-70) the Buddha mentions that there are four kinds of happiness derived from wealth. They are:

Atthisukha - The happiness of ownership.

Anavajjasukha - The happiness derived from wealth which is earned by means of right livelihood, i.e. not dealing in the sale of harmful weapons, not dealing in the slaughter of animals and sale of flesh, not dealing in the sale of liquor, not dealing in the sale of human beings (e.g. slavery and prostitution) and not dealing in the sale of poisons.

Ananasukha - the happiness derived from not being in debt. Bhogasukha - the happiness of sharing one's wealth. This kind of happiness is an extremely important concept in Buddhism.

Although the Buddha saw that economic stability was important for man's happiness, he also saw the harmful side of wealth. Rather, he saw that man's natural desires and propensities are such that wealth provides ample scope for these propensities to surface and indulge themselves. Yet, it appears, desires can never be fully satisfied for it is stated in the Ratthapalasutta (M.II.68) "Uno loko atitto tanhadaso." The world is never satisfied and is ever a slave to craving. The Dhammapada (vs. 186-187) also points out this insatiability in man. "Na kahapana vassena titthi kamesu vijjati..." Not by a shower of gold coins does contentment arise in sensual pleasures.

On another occasion the Buddha said, " Grass is to be sought for by those in need of grass. Firewood is to be sought for by those in need of firewood. A cart to be sought for by those in need of a cart. A servant by him who is in need of a servant. But, Headman, in no manner whatsoever do I declare that gold and silver be accepted or sought for. "(S.IV 326) The meaning is very clear from these statements. Wealth is to be sought not as an end in itself but as a means to an end, for attaining various objectives and fulfilling duties.

The Andhasutta (A.I. 128-129) presents an apt analogy where we can locate the ethically ideal position. The Buddha says there are three types of persons to be found in the world: The totally blind, the one who can see with one eye, and, the one who can see with both eyes. The man who is totally blind is the one who can neither acquire wealth nor discern right from wrong. The one who can see with one eye is the man who can acquire wealth but cannot discern right from wrong. The one who has perfect sight in both eyes is the ideal individual. He can acquire wreath and also discern what is right from wrong. The Buddhist view is that the ideal man is the man who is wealthy and virtuous.

In another analogy (S.I.. 93ff) the Buddha classified people into the following categories:

Tama (dark) to Tama (dark)

Tama (dark) to Joti (light)

Joti (light) to tama (dark)

Joti (light) to Joti (light)

The tama person is poor and may or may not possess good qualities such as faith and generosity. The Joti person is rich and may or may not possess good qualities such as faith and generosity. The Tama person who does not possess good qualities who is mean and devoid of faith will go from from darkness to darkness. The Tama person who has faith and is of a generous disposition will go from darkness to light. The joti person who is devoid of faith and generosity will go from light to darkness. The Joti person who has good qualities will go from light to light.

Sometimes wealth causes certain people to be miserly. The Buddha has remarked that riches "that are not rightly utilized run to waste, not to enjoyment" and compares such a person to a lake of pure water lying in an inaccessible savage region. (S.I. 89-90).

How should one acquire wealth in a way that will conduce to prosperity and happiness?

People from various walks of life and of varying temperaments came to the Buddha to ask him all kinds of advice. The people of Veludvara and Dhigajanu Vyaggapajja of Kakkarapatta, for instance (on separate occasions) visited the Buddha and requested him to teach them those things which would conduce to their happiness in this life as well as the next.

Dhiajanu Vyaggapajja (like the people of veludvara) confessed to enjoying life thoroughly. "Lord" he said "we householders like supporting wives and children. We love to use the finest muslins from Benares and the best sandalwood, deck ourselves with flowers, garlands and cosmetics. We also like to use both silver and gold." (A.IV 280)

With great compassion did the Buddha give Vyaggapajja (as he did the people of veludvara on another occasion) a comprehensive prescription for the attainment of prosperity and happiness without ever deprecating the life of sensuous enjoyment Laymen like to lead. It is in this sutta that the Buddha advocated four conditions which if fulfilled would give one prosperity and happiness. They are:

1. Utthanasampada - achievement in alertness. The Buddha has described this quality as skill and perseverance and applying an inquiring mind into ways and means whereby one is able to arrange and carry out one's work successfully.

2. Arakkhasampada - achievement in carefulness,

3. Kalyanamittata - having the compainionship of good friends who have the qualities of faith, virtue, generousity and wisdom.

4. Samajivikata - maintaining a balanced livelihood. This last condition requires one not to be unduly elated or dejected in the face of gain or loss but to have a good idea of one's income and expenditure and live within one's means. A man is advised not to waste his wealth like shaking a fig tree to get one fruit, thereby causing all the fruits on the tree, ripe and unripe, to fall on the ground and go waste. Nor is one advised to hoard wealth without enjoying it and die of starvation.

This advice with regard to acquiring material wealth is followed up with four conditions for one's spiritual welfare which would ensure one a happy birth in the next life also. They are: Having the qualities of faith, (saddha) virtue, (sila) charity (dana) and wisdom (panna)

A careful look at the two sets of four conditions clearly show that the principle underlying them is that one should maintain a balance between material and spiritual progress. Directing one's attention to one's spiritual welfare along with one's daily activities having to do with acquiring wealth acts as a break to ever-increasing greed. The purpose of restraining greed or sense desires is to develop contentment with less wants. Amassing wealth for its own sake is condemned by the Buddha. When wealth is not shared and is used only to satisfy one's own selfish aims, it leads to resentment in society. When this sutta is carefully considered the connection between ethics and happiness becomes apparent.

Further in the sutta, wealth is likened to a tank of water with four outlets through which the water is liable to flow out and go waste. These outlets are what dissipates wealth, viz., debauchery, addiction to liquor, gambling and keeping company with evil doers. The four inlets which keep replenishing the supply of water in the tank are the practising of the opposites of what has been mentioned above such as abstaining from debauchery, etc.

According to the Alavakasutta (Sn. p.33) wealth is acquired by energetic striving, amassed by strength of arm and sweat of brow.

The Buddha has also observed that in acquiring wealth one should not be deterred by cold, heat, flies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, creeping things, dying of hunger and thirst but that one should be prepared to endure all these difficulties. (M.I. 85) In short, being idle and shirking hardhips is not the best way to succeed in gaining prosperity.

Earning wealth through selling intoxicating liquor, harmful weapons, drugs and poisons or animals to be killed are all condemned. They fall into the category of wrong livelihood (A.III 206.) One's livelihood must be earned through lawful means, non - violently (S.IV 336). In fact, the Buddha has stated that the wealth of those who amass it without intimidating others, like a roving bee who gathers honey without damaging flowers, well increase in the same way as does an anthill. (D.III 188)

In the Dhananjanisutta (M.II. 188) ven'ble Sariputta states that no one can escape the dreadful results of unlawful and non - righteous methods of livelihood by giving the reason that one is engaged in them to perform his duties and fulfill obligations. The Dhammikasutta of the Sutta nipata states "Let him dutifully maintain his parents and practise an honourable trade. The householder who observes this strenuously goes to the gods by name Sayampabhas."

In the Parabhavasutta of the Sutta nipata, the Buddha stressed ethical conduct if a man is to avoid loss of wealth. In fact, innumerable are the discourses which advise one to observe the pancasila - the five precepts, which are based on the principle of respect and concern for others. They imply that one should not jeopardize the interests of others (M.I. 416), that one must not deprive another of what legitimately belongs to him (M.I. 157) for it is indicated that a man's possessions form the basis of his happiness (M.A.II 329, Commentary to the Saleyyaka sutta, M.I. p.285) Far less should any one deprrive another of his life or cause pain or harm to any living being. The Dhammapada (v 129) states:

"Sabbe tasanti dandassa

Sabbe bhayanti macuno

Attanam upamam katva

Na haneyya, na ghataye."

"All tremble at the rod. All fear death. Comparing others with oneself, one should neither strike nor cause to strike."

How should one spend wealth so that one may obtain optimum happiness?

In the Anguttaranikaya (A III 279) the Buddha says that there are five advantages to be gained in having wealth. With one's wealth one can make oneself, parents, wife, children, workers, friends and colleagues happy and also make offerings to recluses and Brahmins. The Buddha says that a person who spends his money in this way can be compared to a lovely lake with clear, blue, cold, delicious, crystalline water which lies near a village or township from which people can draw water, drink from it, bathe in it and use it for any other purpose. (S. I.90) The Pattakammasutta (A II 67) extends this list besides the above ways of spending money to include securing wealth against misfortunes by way of fire, water, king, robbers, enemies or ill disposed heirs, spending wealth for the fivefold offerings such as natibali (relatives), atithibali (guests), petabali (departed ancestors) rajabali (king's tax) devabali (gods), and offering gifts to recluses and Brahmins who abstain from sloth and negligence who are genuinely disciplined, kind and forbearing.

The Pattakammasutta goes on to say that if a person disregarding these fourfold purposes spends his money it is called "wealth that has failed to seize its opportunity, failed to win merit, unfittingly made use of."

How should one protect the wealth one has earned?

The Buddha has pointed out that wealth must be protected from fire, floods, the king, robbers, enemies and unbeloved heirs (A.III 259). Two out of these five dangers are natural calamities. The other three arise through human agency. This is where the importance of the second precept is seen. If each individual observes the five precepts, society is to a great deal made secure against infringement of individual rights and a peaceful, harmonious existence is ensured. What the Buddha points out is that ethics have a direct bearing on one's security and happiness.

The correlation between ethics and happiness

Buddhist ethics are based on the principle that certain actions (kamma) result in certain effects; in short, they are based on the Law of Causality - Paticcasamupada. But, we may ask, why do immoral acts result in suffering and unhappiness? What is the correlation between moral acts and beneficial results?

The Culakammavibhangasutta of the Majjhimanikaya mentions that a person who kills a living creature will be born in an evil state. This remark is not based on mere speculation. Such states are observable through higher knowledge - abhinna - attained through meditation. It is through this higher knowledge obtained at Enlightenment, by assiduous mind training and purification, that the Buddha was able to see by means of a thoroughly clarified mind, free from all defilements, the data on which he based his theory of Causality. This doctrine of Paticcasamupada or conditionedness explains the relational dynamics of phenomena, both physical and psychological. Paticcasamupada is the process through which the law of kamma also operates. Kamma, as every Buddhist knows, originates in volition. The oft quoted words of the Buddha regarding kamma are, "Cetena, bhikkhave, kammam vadami....." (A. III 415) At the same time, Buddhism acknowledged the fact that there were laws, other than kammaniyama, that operated in the world such as uttuniyama, bijaniyama, cittaniyama and dhammaniyama.

As has been seen the pancasila ensures our security in society. Also, to a great extent, the fact that good actions lead to beneficial results and that bad actions lead to suffering is observable in daily life and we are able to know this experientially.

The Buddha's prescription for prosperity and happiness in this and in the next life is based on very practical advice of a worldly nature, inextricably linked with ethics. The layman's code of ethics - which includes the observance of the pancasila - the five precepts - is a sine qua non for all Buddhists. The social consequences of observing the basic ethics enunciated in the layman's code of ethics are very extensive. They contribute to producing a protective atmosphere of security and goodwill around one which is conducive to both material and spiritual progress.

The most important suttas included in the layman's code of ethics are the Mahamangalasutta, Dhammikasutta, Parabhavasutta and Vasala sutta of the Sutta nipata, the Sigalovadasutta of the Digha nikaya and Vyaggapajjasutta and the Gihisukhasutta of the Anguttaranikaya.

There is no space here to go into the reciprocal duties listed in the Sigalovadasutta between a householder and members of his family and the reciprocal duties of a householder vis - a - vis the members of society on the periphery of his family. Briefly, there are duties and obligations which a layman should perform for each of the individuals represented by the six directions, viz., the East (parents - children), the South (Teachers - pupils), the West, (husband - wife), North (friends and associates), Zenith (religieux - laymen), Nadir (employer - employee). If these duties and obligations are fulfilled they would contribute considerably to establishing harmonious relationships within the family and without. Among the duties and obligations of an employer towards and employee are assigning work according to ability, supplying food and wages, tending them in sickness, sharing delicacies, and giving them leave. Employees should perform duties well, uphold the employer's good name, take only what is given, rise before him and sleep after him.

Among the duties of children towards parents are supporting them (in their old age) and performing other duties for them. The duties of parents towards children include restraining them from evil, encouraging them to do good, training them for a profession, arranging a suitable marriage and handing over their inheritance at the proper time.

A husband should be courteons to the wife, not despise her, faithful to her, give her, authority over household matters, provide her with adornments. A wife should perform her duties well, be hospitable to relatives on both sides and attendants, faithful, protect the husband's wealth, and be skillfull and industrious in discharging her duties. This advice shows that good relations between a husband and wife and the good relation they maintain with others and their own industry conduce to their prosperity and happiness. Co - operation, interaction and good will are stressed.

A classic definition of good actions and bad actions is given in the Ambalatthika Rahulovadasutta of the Majjhimanikaya:

"Whatever action, bodily, verbal or mental, leads to suffering for oneself, for others or for both, that action is bad (akusala). Whatever action, bodily, verbal or mental, does not lead to suffering for oneself, for others or for both, that action is good (kusala)"

A guiding principle concerning Buddhist ethics is the axiom, "Yo attanam rakkhati, so param rakkhati". He who protect himself protects others or "Param rakkhanto attanam rakkhati." When you protect others, you protect yourself.

It is said that one protects others by tolerance (khantiya), non - injury (avahimsa) compassionate love (mettata) and kindness (anudayata). It can be seen that pancasila is implicit in these. When the pancasila is observed scrupulously it protects one and others very adequately.

Buddhist ethics urge that one's actions should flow from a view that is not egocentric but which regards oneself and others as one. What is stressed is not a monism but the principle of anatta in the psycho - physical process which goes to make up the human being. Consider stanza 7 of the Karaniyamettasutta of the sutta nipata:

"Mata yatha niyamputtam

ayusa ekaputtam anurakkhe

evampi sabba bhutesu

manasam bhavaye aparimanam."

"Just as a mother would protect

her only child with her life,

even so let one cultivate

a boundless love towards all beings."

The view of anatta in the philosophy shows that the division between the mentally constructed notion of "I" and the rest of the world as the "other" is artificial. When actions flow from this stand point, then such actions are bound to be ethical (kusala); that is to say, they do not lead to raga (attachment) but viraga (detachment). This, of course, is the ideal - the goal,

This view of detachment recommended, based on the belief that all phenomena are devoid of a permanent essence, demonstrates the fact that there is no radical difference between the outlook of one who is bent on attaining nibbana and the one who is practising the path in lay life.

The Buddha's prescriptions for the attainment of prosperity and happiness through material wealth in an ethical manner ensures one's gradual progress on the path. The following quotation from David J. Kalupahana's book, Buddhist Philosophy explains this idea well.

"It may not be far from the truth to say that this attitude of renunciation is behind every moral virtue. Not only those who leave everyday life and embrace the life of a monk, but everyone is expected to practice renunciation to the extent to which he is able. Without such sacrifices, there cannot be perfect harmony in society. Thus, even the simplest of virtues, such as generosity, liberality, caring for one's parents, family, fellow beings and others cannot be practiced without an element of renunciation or sacrifice. This is the 'sacrifice' the Buddha emphasized."

4. Nalanda - An Ancient Buddhist University
...a travel log by Surajit Basu

* http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/4321/nalanda.html

Welcome to Nalanda, the ancient university. Set in India, close to Gaya in Bihar, this site was lost for hundreds of years and rediscovered.

Take a guided tour ( http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/4321/nal4.html ) to this ruined yet great university.

A view from the heights that Indian education had reached a thousand years ago. A complete campus spreads out below : university buildings, hostels, roads, temples, lawns. Elegant structures that have stood the test of time, delicate craftmanship visible even today on the walls.

Buried for hundreds of years, Nalanda has emerged from the dark, with many stories to tell. Situated close to Gaya, the heart of Buddhism, Nalanda was once a thriving university that today inspires vistors as it once inspired its students.

A modern map of the ancient university shows us the chaityas and the monasteries, where the students learnt and lived. The chaityas were the temples, centres of meditation and learning while the monasteries were the hostels.

2,000 teachers and 10,000 students stayed and studied in this university. Some came from other countries, other cultures. Like Hiuen Tsang from China who wrote about his days here. In the 7th century. He left an elaborate description of the excellence of Nalanda.

Around the central quadrangle, a set of hostel rooms. Small rooms, with a hard bed, and a door in the middle. All the rooms face the quadrangle, where the students would tend to hang out and gather in groups.

Some hostels are bigger, with bigger rooms, with a football field too! Probably, the seniors' hostel. There were about 10,000 students.

A familiar picture of your college ? ( This is supposed to be the Kushan architectural style; looks the same as IIT-K ! )

Except that this is more than a thousand years ago. Nalanda was visited by Buddha, that's how old it is. But it was really famous from the 5th to the 12th centuries : will your college last longer ?

The vast granary of Nalanda. The boys must have been hungry. Even for those who have managed a student mess, the sheer size is a surprise.

A popular story has it that the Nalanda's granary was sealed. When archealogists discovered it, they could not find any way to open it. After they broke into the air-tight store, they found rice that was still fresh!

Apocryphal though it may be, the story is a sign of how revered Nalanda is - even today.

Amidst the greenery, a complex chain of buildings stretches out over the university campus. Linking monasteries and chaityas with roads and garden paths.

One can almost imagine the late student racing his way up and down staircases, cutting across the lush lawns, rushing from bell to bell.

Or just loitering around campus, lazily strolling though the gardens and lawns like a modern tourist at Nalanda.

5. Buddhist Sutras: Origin, Development, Transmission
...by Kogen Mizuno, Sono Seiritsu To Ten Kyoden

* http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/4333010284/wwwkusalaorg-20/

Amazon.com- Reviewer: from Dhahran Saudi Arabia... I read sutras like some people smoke and drink. Passing nods to the string of translators whose works preceded the English translation usually serve only as annoyances, just names creeping across the footnotes. Mizuno slices the history of Buddhism a different and beneficial way, with a study devoted to the sutra heritage. The different translators names and identities suddenly become distinct, personal, and intentional. This is no romantic view of the scriptural history. Mizuno's book is hardball all the way. Don't read another sutra without it.

Amazon.com- Reviewer: A reader from annapolis, maryland... This book is only for those with a deep interest in sutras. If you love the buddhist sutras you'll probably find this book intriguing. I loved this book because I love the Buddhist sutras, particularly the diamond sutra. Once I fall in love with literature I want to know as much as possible about it and this book does the best I've seen. That isn't that difficult however when there are very few books that research the history.

6. Peace Quote...

The belief in the possibility of a short decisive war appears to be one of the most ancient and dangerous of human illusions. - Robert Lynd (1879-1949), Anglo-Irish essayist, journalist


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