The Urban Dharma Newsletter... October 15, 2002


In This Issue:

1. Meditation for Peace
2. In Quest of Peace Through Buddhism
...By Dr. Ashon Nayaka
3. Buddhist Ideas For Attaining World Peace
...Ron Epstein
4. Buddhism and Peace
5. Book Review: The Art of Forgiveness, Lovingkindness, and Peace
... Jack Kornfield
6. Temple/Center of the Week: Peace and Conflict Research Centers, Institutes, Organizations & Networks.


1. Meditation for Peace

* http://www.millenniumpeacesummit.org/buddha_description.html

All beings tremble before violence.

All fear death.

All love life
See yourself in others.

Then whom can you hurt?

What harm can you do?

He who seeks happiness
By hurting those who seek happiness
Will never find happiness.

For your brother is like you.

He wants to be happy.

Never harm him
And when you leave this life
You too will find happiness.


2. In Quest of Peace Through Buddhism ...By Dr. Ashon Nayaka

* http://arakan.homestead.com/files/Flowers/In_Quest_of_Peace_Through_Buddhism.htm

Buddhism is based on the cardinal principles of universal love and friendship. Human welfare and a life module to work for human welfare and peace are the supreme concerns of Buddhism.

The people all over the world are now realizing that the world is at the threshold of self-destruction through nuclear holocaust and the methods of chemical and biological warfare can eliminate life from the surface of the earth. Therefore, the need of Buddha’s message of compassion and peace today is more then ever before. The contribution of Buddhism lies in the form of love, compassion and fraternity for all living beings, equality of man/woman and principles of non-violence and also in the rational approach in solving human problems.

Majority of the society throughout the world is still suffering with burning problems like poverty, starvation, ill health, ignorance, and negligence to helpless, injustice, inequality and interference. Industrialization and commercialization have come in the way between nature and man hampering the ecological balance with environmental pollution. The world today, is said to have progressed in almost all fields i.e. in scientific discoveries and technical inventions, in political, social and cultural thoughts and in religious matters. In religious fields there have been many approaches in finding truth and searching for peace.

Society, science and religion/spirituality are interlinked and each of them has its bearing on others as well as on the economy of the time. Science and spirituality deal with the search for the truth. Science has produced many wonders and its pageant of endless discoveries has changed the course of life of mankind. But it has failed to reveal the very purpose of life, which is total freedom from miseries, and achievement of ultimate bliss. This is the sole aim and object of all of our efforts and all the religions aims at it. The spirituality that has no bearing on everyday life of the society of the time is just a showpiece; spiritual truth cannot be separated from social realities. All religious teachers reflected all the solutions to the problems of life here in this world and hereafter. The moral lesson they conveyed to people was often related to the eternal challenges of life and living. The real solution of endless human miseries in ultimate analysis was and will be spiritual.

Our historical Buddha was deeply moved by human sufferings of birth sickness, contact with unfavorable person and things, separation from dear ones, old age and death. It was the agony of the inevitable sufferings of human life that took him to quest for deliverance from miseries through dispassionate conduct and view of the worldly life vis-à-vis self-indulgence and self-mortification.

Buddhism centers around the man and his sufferings. Its main purpose is to release the human beings from their endless sufferings. It “ satisfies the reason and the heart alike, insists on self reliance coupled with tolerance for the other point of view, embraces science, religion, philosophy, psychology, ethics and arts, and points to man alone as the creator of his present life and sole designer of his destiny.

Buddhism as the most rational and pragmatic religion aims at the promotion of all varied zests and interests of life values in the society. It teaches how the individual and social life can be best as the enlightened life; care freed, detached and released life with full of far sights and insights. The descriptive analysis of the application of Buddhism in the hurry-burry life of the Lay-devotees and of the monastic life, would convince us of its practical and the applied ethical values in social, economical, political, intellectual, moral and spiritual. Its most tolerant, philosophy would unfold its pure nature of how it influences the members of our family, relatives, friends, associates and community in a large perspective and help us to conquer all obstacles for progress and to achieve the ideal goal of absolute perfection of Nibbana-existence.

The Buddha guided us to live a fully awakened life by practice of moral precepts and remaining fully mindful about our own thoughts, speeches, feelings and actions etc. and developing the habit of keeping the mind present with the present moment instead of allowing it to stroll in the past memories or future imaginations. The Buddha has shown the path to one and all whoever cares to follow it and enjoy it fruits rights here in these very life. So it is now up to all of us what we follow, how and how much we follow the shown by the Buddha for developing our own human values to live a happy, peaceful, contended and fearless life.

Let us examine, what the word ‘peace’ is actually meant for? Generally speaking, ‘peace’ means, Harmony, Concord, Tranquility, Undisturbed state of mind, Absence of Mental conflict, Freedom from war and Civil strife, Quarrels and Disagreement, etc. It reveals that, Peace has two-fold meaning like inner-peace and outer peace or external peace. In other words, peace means peace in the hearts of the people and peace all around. Whatever be the impact of the word peace, every human beings inclusive of all sentient beings are loving and on one desire to live in sorrow and sufferings.

Because of greed, hatred, delusion or ignorance and jealous, the scientific developments, which are devoid of ethical codes and human values, there arise inordinate race for love of power, distrust, antipathies and the all possible evil motives in the human minds itself. It may, therefore, be concluded that, such advancements of science would be of no use for bestowing any enduring peace or happiness and on the other hand, lead to competition, conflict violence between man and man, men and nation and nation resulting in turmoil, oppression and disasters etc. It is therefore experienced that the human minds are the roots of all the evils. The

minds, which govern good and bad activities, can operate beyond any scientific measuring computers, are said to be the real friends and the worst of the enemies of humanity.

Buddhism can play the most significant role for ushering in peace and harmony amongst the mankind. Because, Buddhism analysis the root causes of the human problems and tackle them correctly, advising the marvelous prescription of the Noble Eight Fold Path based on morality, concentration and wisdom. It they are suitable practiced and inculcated in every body’s life, he is sure to remodel and reshape his philosophy of life endowed with the spirit of qualitative virtues of loving kindness, compassion, piety, understanding etc. the most scientific essentialities of Buddhism, need to build up truly human being. By following the path shown by the Buddha the Buddhist countries can play a great role in promotion of peace and harmony in the world.


3. BUDDHIST IDEAS FOR ATTAINING WORLD PEACE ...Ron Epstein ...(Lectures for the Global Peace Studies Program, San Francisco State University, November 7 & 9, 1988)



Buddhism teaches that whether we have global peace or global war is up to us at every moment. The situation is not hopeless and out of our hands. If we don't do anything, who will? Peace or war is our decision. The fundamental goal of Buddhism is peace, not only peace in this world but peace in all worlds. The Buddha taught that the first step on the path to peace is understanding the causality of peace. When we understand what causes peace, we know where to direct our efforts. No matter how vigorously we stir a boiling pot of soup on a fire, the soup will not cool. When we remove the pot from the fire, it will cool on its own, and our stirring will hasten the process. Stirring causes the soup to cool, but only if we first remove the soup from the fire. In other words, we can take many actions in our quest for peace that may be helpful. But if we do not first address the fundamental issues, all other actions will come to naught.

The Buddha taught that peaceful minds lead to peaceful speech and peaceful actions. If the minds of living beings are at peace, the world will be at peace. Who has a mind at peace, you say? The overwhelming majority of us live in the midst of mental maelstroms that subside only for brief and treasured moments. We could probably count on the fingers of both hands the number of those rare, holy persons whose minds are truly, permanently at peace. If we wait for all beings in the world to become sages, what chance is there of a peaceful world for us? Even if our minds are not completely peaceful, is there any possibility of reducing the levels of violence in the world and of successfully abating the winds of war?

To answer these questions, let us look first at the Buddha's vision of the world, including the causality of its operations. Then, in that context, we can trace the causes of war. When the causes are identified, the Buddha's suggestions for dealing with them and eliminating them can be discussed. Finally, having developed a Buddhist theoretical framework for understanding the nature of the problem and its solution, we can try to apply the basic principles in searching for concrete applications that we can actually put into practice in our own daily lives.


The Buddha taught that all forms of life partake of the same fundamental spiritual source, which he called the enlightened nature or the Buddha-nature. He did not admit to any essential division in the spiritual condition of human beings and other forms of life. In fact, according to Buddhist teachings, after death a human being is reborn, perhaps again as a human being or possibly in the animal realms or in other realms. Likewise, animals can, in certain circumstances, be reborn as human beings. All sentient beings are seen as passing through the unending cycle of the wheel of rebirth. They are born, they grow old, become sick, and die. They are reborn, grow old, get sick and die, over and over and over again.


What determines how you are reborn is karma. Whether you obtain a human body, whether male or female, or that of an animal or some other life-form is karma. Whether you have a body that is healthy or sickly, whether you are intelligent or stupid, whether your family is rich or poor, whether your parents are compassionate or hard-hearted--all that is karma. Karma is a Sanskrit word that is derived from the semantic root meaning 'to do'. It refers to activity--mental, verbal, and physical--as governed by complex patterns of cause and effect. There are two basic kinds of karma--individual and shared.

Individual karma is not limited to a single lifetime. What you did in your past lives determines your situation in your present life. If you did good deeds in past lives, the result will be an auspicious rebirth. If your actions in past lives were predominantly bad, your situation in the present will be inauspicious. If in this life you act more like an animal than a human being, your next rebirth will be as an animal.

Shared karma refers to our net of inter-relationship with other people, non-human beings, and our environment. A certain category of beings live in a certain location and tend to perceive their environment in much the same way, because that particular shared situation is the fruition of their former actions.

The doctrine of karma is not deterministic. Rather it is a doctrine of radical personal responsibility. Although your present situation in every moment is determined by your past actions, your action in the present moment, in the present circumstances, can be totally unconditioned and, therefore, totally free. It is true that you may mindlessly react according to the strengths of your various habit-patterns, but that need not be the case. The potential for you to act mindfully and freely is always there. It is up to you to realize that you have the choice and to make it. This realization is the beginning of true spiritual growth.

The Buddha taught that the fundamental cause of all suffering is ignorance. The basic ignorance is our failure to understand that the self, which is at the center of all of our lives, which determines the way in which we see the world, which directs our actions for our own ease and benefit, is an illusion. The illusion of the self is the cause of all our suffering. We want to protect our self from the dangers of the constant flux of life. We want to exempt our self from change, when nothing in the world is exempt from change.

Life centered on self naturally tends toward the selfish. Selfishness poisons us with desire and greed. When they are not fulfilled, we tend to become angry and hateful. These basic emotional conditions cover the luminous depths of our minds and cut us off from our own intuitive wisdom and compassion; our thoughts and actions then emanate from deluded and superficial views.


The causes of war are too numerous even to list, let alone discuss intelligently. What we discuss here are what the Buddha considered the most fundamental, the fire under the boiling pot of soup.

War is not something abstract. War is waged between one group of individuals and another. The reasons for war are also not abstract. [We have not yet had a war started and directed according to logical paradigms programmed into a computer.] It is individuals who decide to wage war. Even if the war is global, its beginning can be traced back to the decisions of individuals. And so before we talk about global war, let us first talk about war on the level of the individual.

Wars begin because the people of one country, or at least their rulers, have unfulfilled desires--they are greedy for benefits or wealth (i.e., economic greed) or power, or they are angry or hateful. Either their desires have been thwarted or their pride, their sense of self, has been offended. This can also manifest as racial or national arrogance. They wrongly feel that the answer to problems, which are essentially within their own minds, a matter of attitudes, can be sought externally, through the use of force.


Four years after his [the Buddha's] attainment of enlightenment, a war took place between the city-state of Kapilavastu and that of Kilivastu over the use of water. Being told of this, [the Buddha] Sakyamuni hastened back to Kapilavastu and stood between the two great armies about to start fighting. At the sight of Sakyamuni, there was a great commotion among the warriors, who said, "Now that we see the World-Honored One, we cannot shoot the arrows at our enemies," and they threw down their weapons. Summoning the chiefs of the two armies, he asked them, "Why are you gathered here like this?" "To fight," was their reply. "For what cause do you fight?" he queried. "To get water for irrigation." Then, asked Sakyamuni again, "How much value do you think water has in comparison with the lives of men?" "The value of water is very slight" was the reply. "Why do you destroy lives which are valuable for valueless water?" he asked. Then, giving some allegories, Sakyamuni taught them as follows: "Since people cause war through misunderstanding, thereby harming and killing each other, they should try to understand each other in the right manner." In other words, misunderstanding will lead all people to a tragic end, and Sakyamuni exhorted them to pay attention to this. Thus the armies of the two city-states were dissuaded from fighting each other.

The doctrine of karma teaches that force and violence, even to the level of killing, never solves anything. Killing generates fear and anger, which generates more killing, more fear, and more anger, in a vicious cycle without end. If you kill your enemy in this life, he is reborn, seeks revenge, and kills you in the next life. When the people of one nation invade and kill or subjugate the people of another nation, sooner or later the opportunity will present itself for the people of the conquered nation to wreak their revenge upon the conquerors. Has there ever been a war that has, in the long run, really resolved any problem in a positive manner? In modern times the so-called 'war to end all wars' has only led to progressively larger and more destructive wars.

The emotions of killing translate into more and more deaths as the weapons of killing become more and more sophisticated. In prehistoric times, a caveman could explode with anger, take up his club, and bludgeon a few people to death. Nowadays, if, for example, the President of the United States loses his temper, who can tell how many will lose their lives as the result of the employment of our modern weaponry. And in the present we are on the brink of a global war that threatens to extinguish permanently all life on the planet. When will that happen? Perhaps when the collective selfishness of individuals to pursue their own desires--greed for sex, wealth and power; the venting of frustrations through anger, hatred and brutal self-assertion--overcomes the collective compassion of individuals for others, overcomes their respect for the lives and aspirations of others. Then the unseen collective pressure of mind on mind will tip the precarious balance, causing the finger, controlled ostensibly by an individual mind, to press the button that will bring about nuclear Armageddon. When the individual minds of all living beings are weighted, if peaceful minds are more predominant, the world will tend to be at peace; if violent minds are more predominant, the world will tend to be at war.


Providing people with physical well-being and wealth does not necessarily lead to peace. Lewis Lapham recently wrote:

Apparently it is not poverty that causes crime, but rather the resentment of poverty. This latter condition is as likely to embitter the 'subjectively deprived' in a rich society as the 'objectively deprived' in a poor society.

Mental attitudes and the actions to which they lead are the key.

Buddhists believe that the minds of all living beings are totally interconnected and interrelated, whether they are consciously aware of it or not. To use a simple analogy for the interconnection, each being has his or her own transmitting and receiving station and is constantly broadcasting to all others his or her state of mind and is constantly receiving broadcasts from all others. Even the most insignificant thoughts in our minds have some effect on all other beings. How much the more so do our strong negative emotions and our acting out of them in direct or indirect forms of physical violence! In other words, each thought in the mind of each and every one of us brings the world either a little closer to the brink of global disaster or helps to move the world a little farther away from the brink. If each time we feel irritated, annoyed, thwarted, outraged, or just plain frustrated, we reflect on the consequences of our thoughts, words and actions, perhaps that reflection in itself will help to lead us to behave in a way that will contribute to global peace. If every time we get angry at our wife or husband, girl friend or boy friend, parents or children, we are aware that we are driving the entire world toward the brink of war, maybe we will think twice and wonder whether our anger is worth the consequences. Even if we feel our cause is just, if we in thought, word, and deed make war against injustice, we are still part of the problem and not contributing to the solution. On the other hand, if we concentrate on putting our own minds at peace, then we can broadcast peace mentally and generate peace through our actions. We should use a peaceful mind to act for peace in the world.

As to the interrelations between the minds of beings, the being we may be about to harm or even kill, from a Buddhist point of view, may well be our own parents, children, wives or husbands, or dearest friends from former lives.

Because Buddhists see the problem of war as a karmic one, the solution is seen as the practicing and teaching of correct ethical behavior.  Good deeds lead to good consequences, bad deeds to bad. If you plant bean seeds, you get beans; if you plant melon seeds, you get melons. If you plant the seeds of war, you get war; if you plant the seeds of peace, you get peace.

The most fundamental moral precept in Buddhist teaching is respect for life and the prohibition against taking life. Generally speaking, all living beings want to live and are afraid of death. The strongest desire is for life, and when that desire is thwarted, the response is unbelievably powerful anger. Unlike almost all other religions, Buddhism teaches that there are no exceptions to this prohibition and no expedient arguments are admitted. The taking of life not only covers human life but all sentient beings. Reducing the karma of killing is equivalent to putting out the fire under the pot of boiling soup. If we end killing, the world will be at peace.

The prohibition against stealing says, more literally, that one must not take what is not given. Stealing, whether it is by individuals, corporations, or nations, occurs because of selfish greed. From the time of the Trojan War, sexual misconduct has also been a cause of war, as has been lying. National leaders whose minds have been clouded by drugs are not rare in history either--their conduct is rarely just and peaceful. The international drug trade in itself has become a major impediment to peace in most parts of the world. The taking of intoxicating substances is also prohibited by fundamental Buddhist teachings.

The Buddhist vision is a world in which all life is sacred, in which selfishness, in the guise of greed, anger and foolishness, does not interfere with the basic interconnectedness of all living beings. That interconnectedness, when freed from the distortion of selfishness, is based upon the potential for enlightenment that every being shares.


A beautiful vision, some might say. But how can such a peace be realized in a world such as ours? Isn't it mere impractical fantasy? No, it is not. Now the time has come to outline some concrete and practical steps that can be taken towards making it a reality. As a beginning, here are three steps.

Step One

If the karma of killing is the flame beneath the soup pot, by reducing it, we directly affect the boiling turmoil of violence and war. We need to reduce the atmosphere of killing and violence, both in our society and in our own lives. Each one of us can reduce the level of killing in our own lives by the very simple act of becoming vegetarian. An ancient sage once said:

For hundreds of thousands of years

The stew in the pot

Has brewed hatred and resentment

That is difficult to stop.

If you wish to know why there are disasters

Of armies and weapons in the world,

Listen to the piteous cries

From the slaughterhouse at midnight.

In a more contemporary vein George Bernard Shaw wrote a "Song of Peace:"

We are the living graves of murdered beasts,

Slaughtered to satisfy our appetites.

We never pause to wonder at our feasts

If animals, like men, can possibly have rights.

We pray on Sundays that we may have light,

To guide our footsteps on the paths we tread.

We're sick of war, we do not want to fight,

The thought of it now fills our hearts with dread

And yet we gorge ourselves upon the dead.

Like carrion crows, we live and feed on meat,

Regardless of the suffering and pain

We cause by doing so. If thus we treat

Defenseless animals for sport or gain,

How can we hope in this world to attain

The Peace we say we are so anxious for?

We pray for it, o'r hecatombs of slain,

To God, while outraging the moral law,

Thus cruelty begets its offspring--War.

For those who still do not see the logical relationships, I shall try to spell them out more clearly. Non-human life is not qualitatively different than human life, according to Buddhist teachings. Just as when a human is killed, an animal too most often responds to its death with thoughts of resentment, hatred and revenge. While it is dying, these thoughts or emotions poison its flesh. After it is dead, its disembodied consciousness continues to broadcast thoughts of resentment, hatred and revenge to the minds of its killers and those for whom it was killed. Think of the billions of cows, pigs, chickens and sheep that are killed for consumption each year in the United States alone. Those of you who have passed the slaughter yards on the interstate highway near Coalinga, California, have probably noticed not only the stench but also the dark cloud of fear and violence that hangs over the place. The general mental atmosphere of that entire county is thick with thoughts of violence with which such thoughts within our own minds can all too easily resonate.

One of the problems of modern society is that the karma we generate is often indirect and not immediately obvious to us, even though it can be quite powerful. We are no less responsible for the death of the animals when we buy meat wrapped in plastic in the supermarket than if we had killed them ourselves. We are no less responsible for the environmental poisoning of people by chemicals that we pour down our drains or by industries we work for or whose products we buy, than if we had personally added the poison to their food. So too we may not be directly aware of the ways in which we may be providing support for many conflicts and wars around the world. Of course, it is much worse to do something wrong, clearly knowing that it is wrong than to do it in ignorance. Yet ignorance does not absolve us of blame.

Step Two

Since war can come about when the general level of violence in the population reaches the boiling point and can either manifest in civil war or be channeled into foreign wars, anything we can do to reduce the general level of violence in the population will certainly be most helpful. One of the major teachers of violence in our society is television. Turn off your TV--permanently. Michael Nagler has written:

* 96 percent of American homes have at least one television set.

The average home has a set going six hours a day.

* In 'ordinary' viewing, there are 8 violent episodes an hour.

* Between the ages of five and fifteen the average American child has watched the killing of 13,000 people. By age eighteen he or she will have logged more than 15,000 hours of this kind of exposure and taken in more than 20,000 acts of violence. . . .

* 97 percent of cartoons intended for children include acts of violence. By the criteria of the Media Action Research Center, an act of aggression occurs every three and a half minutes during children's Saturday morning programs. Dr. George Gerbner counts one every two minutes by similar criteria.

* In a typical recent year "children . . . witness, on prime time television, 5,000 murders, rapes, beatings and stabbings, 1,300 acts of adultery, and 2,700 sexually aggressive comments," according to a group of concerned mothers.

How can all this be helping the cause of world peace? From an early age our citizens are learning that violence the best solution to their problems, that violence is a socially acceptable and socially approved way of dealing with problems both personal and interpersonal. Turn off the TV!

Step Three

By constantly being mindful of your own thoughts, words and actions and by constantly trying to purify them, we can become part of the force for peace rather than part of the force for war. Teachings about karma indicate to us that no matter how just our cause, no matter how right our ideas, if they are accompanied by anger and hate, they will merely generate more anger and hate. If our minds are inundated with the emotions of war, we aid the cause of war, no matter how noble our cause. Buddhist teachings about karma indicate unequivocally that a fundamentally moral life is a necessary prerequisite for ridding our minds of negative emotions, for transforming them into selfless compassion for all. There are many selfless endeavors that we can take upon ourselves to stir the soup and help cool the pot. But we should remember to be constantly mindful of our own mental attitudes. If we are not, no matter how hard we stir, we may also be unconsciously helping to turn up the flames.

How do we change our own mental attitudes; how do we rid our minds of those strong negative emotions that cause turbidity in our minds? Part of the Bodhisattva Path consists of the practice of giving as an antidote to desire, greed, stinginess, and craving; the practice of patience as an antidote for anger; and the practice of wisdom as an antidote for foolishness.

Step Four

We should work on the systematic extension of compassion towards others. From the level of our own minds, to our speech and then our actions, we can work on generating compassion to those who are closest to us, the members of our own familes, and then progressively extend our compassion to our communities, countries, and the entire world.

Many of you may be disappointed in these suggestions. Perhaps you are looking for something more exciting or stimulating. However, I hope that you will realize that there is some indication that these Buddhist ideas do really work. King Asoka, the Mauryan emperor of India who was coronated in 268 BCE, was converted to Buddhism after experiencing personal revulsion in the aftermath of his bloody conquest of Kalinga. Thereafter he prohibited any form of killing and encouraged humane treatment of all peoples and also animals. The Tibetans were bloodthirsty and warlike before conversion to Buddhism. Likewise, their neighbors the Mongols, particularly the armies of Ghengis Khan, terrorized many peoples, from China to the gates of Vienna. It would be hard to find people more fierce and bloodthirsty. Buddhist missionaries subsequently transformed the Mongols into one of the most peaceful peoples of Asia. Buddhists have never advocated war and have never sanctioned the idea of religious war. The ideal of the Bodhisattva (an enlightened being who devotes himself or herself to the enlightenment of all beings) is to voluntarily return, life after life, to our world of suffering to teach the Way to permanent inner peace, which is the only way to true peace in the world. Whether for us or for the great sages of the world, peace can only be brought to the world one thought at a time in the minds of each one of us. Only on that basis, can our actions for peace, also performed one at a time, be truly effective.


4. Buddhism and Peace ...What people have said about Buddhism and Peace.

* http://www.inet.co.th/cyberclub/toom/people/people_peace.html

Tolerance for Universal Good

The world today is riddled with awful misunderstandings racial, international, communal, economic and ideological. To effectively dissolve these, to begin with is needed the spirit of benevolent tolerance towards the view point of others. And, this can be best cultivated under the guidance of Buddhism, which inculcates ethic-moral co-operation for universal good. (Dr. Sony)

To Win Peace

The question that inevitably suggests itself is, how far can the great message of the Buddha apply to the present-day world? Perhaps it may apply, perhaps it may not; but if we follow the principles enunciated by the Buddha, we will ultimately win peace and tranquillity for the world. (Nehru)

The Buddha's Way of Loving Kindness

For example, the Jains taught the Doctrine of Non-injury; the doctrine, that it is a wicked thing to injure man, animal, or plant. But this doctrine, noble as it is, they carried to what was perhaps a logical, but for all that, quite absurd extreme. The Buddha also taught the Doctrine of Non-injury, but took pains to confine it within reasonable limits. He condemned the killing of animals even for food, but did not altogether forbid the eating of flesh and fish. But he was not satisfied merely to condemn the injuring and killing of living creatures; he taught no such merely negative doctrine. Instead he taught the most sublime doctrine that ever fell from the lips of a human being; the doctrine, namely, of love for all living creatures without respect of kind or person and for the whole visible creation. A man must love his fellow-man as himself, returning good for evil and love for hatred. But this is not all. He must extend his love to the fishes of the sea and the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air. A man must not kill his fellow-man even in self-defence. All war is unholy. (Eugene Watson Burlingame, "Buddhist Legends")

Pioneering Lover

lt is in virtue of this characteristic of the master that Buddhism is the only one of the great religions of the world that is consciously and frankly based on a systematic rational analysis of the problem of life, and of the way to its solution. Buddha was a pioneering lover of men, and a philosophic genius, rolled into a single vigorous and radiant personality. (E. A. Burtt, "The Compassionate Buddha")

One Sword and One Enemy

Not a single page of Buddhist history has ever been lurid with the light of inquisitorial fires, or darkened with the smoke of heretic or heathen cities ablaze, or red with blood of the guiltless victims of religious hatred. Buddhism wields only one sword, the sword of Wisdom, and recognizes only one enemy ignorance. This is the testimony of history, and is not to be gainsaid. ("2500 Years of Buddhism", edited by Prof. Bapat)

No Unkind Word

There was never an occasion when the Buddha flamed forth in anger, never an incident when an unkind word escaped his lips. (Dr. S. Radhakrishnan)

Loving Kindness

The doctrine of loving-kindness, or "Metta" is the glory of Buddhism-- The sentiment of sympathy for animal life pervades the inscriptions of Asoka, who seems to have grasped this first among Buddhist principles. (Bishop Copleston)


If we were asked what religion has best promoted peace in the world, I am quite sure that a candid survey of history would compel us to answer "Buddhism". Indeed it seems to be true. (A Universal Ethics)

Buddhism Teaches to Face the World

Of all religions, Buddhism is best in this crisis to restore our peace of mind, and to help us to face calmly whatever changes the future may have in store. (Capt. C. M. Enqioeq)

Buddhism Secured Peace More than Any Other Religion

Buddhism has taught peace more strongly among its followers, more effectively, during all its history, than has any other great religious faith known to the world. The people then were more spiritual minded, unlike the materialists of today, and placed character, service, love and peace above fame, wealth, supremacy and war, and Buddhism flourished in full bloom at that time because Buddhism is the only religion with no blood-shed or violence. (Rev. J. T. Sunderland)

All-Embracing Love

In the history of the world before the Buddha, do we hear of any 'teacher of religion who was ever filled with such an all- absorbing sympathy and love for the suffering humanity? (Dr. S. N. Dasgupta)

Practice of Wisdom and Compassion

It seemed that the kindly aesthetic, eternally young. seated cross-legged on the lotus of purity with his right hand raised in admonition, answered in these two words: 'if you wish to escape from suffering from fear, practise wisdom and compassion." (Anatole France)

Abhorrence of Violence

To change existing conditions by violence must appear to all Buddhists completely opposed to the Teaching of the master. For any exercise of brute force is alien to the merciful spirit of the pure doctrine. (Prof. Dr. Von Glasenapp, "Buddhism and Christianity")

Religion of Love

Buddhism succeeded so well because it was a religion of love, giving voice to all inarticulate forces which were working against the established order and ceremonial religion, addressing itself to the poor, the lowly, and the disinherited. (Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, "Indian Philosophy")

No Persecution

There is no record known to me in the whole of the long history of Buddhism throughout the many centuries where its followers have been for such lengthened periods supreme, of any persecution by the Buddhists of the followers of any other faith. (Prof. Rhys Davids)

Spiritual Maturity

Buddhists find encouragement only to peace, harmony and loving kindness towards their fellow-creatures. Neither the Buddha nor the Great Sages who have followed Him have taught persecution by religious wars, burning at the stake, massacres, forced conversions etc. It is an outward sign of the spiritual maturity of Buddhism, marking it off from teachings both dogma-bound and harm producing. (Phra Khantipalo, "Tolerance")


5. The Art of Forgiveness, Lovingkindness, and Peace ... Jack Kornfield

* http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0553802054/wwwkusalaorg-20/

Editorial Reviews ...Amazon.com

Bestselling author Jack Kornfield has put together a how-to book--his most ambitious work yet--to encourage the best side of humanity. In The Art of Forgiveness, Lovingkindness, and Peace, Kornfield uses the evocative power of aphorisms to spark feelings and thoughts that can germinate and grow. After a chapter of aphorisms and quotations on each of the title's three topics, Kornfield offers a related series of meditations that show how to cultivate what the aphorisms have prepared. Whereas essays tend to be read through and forgotten, this book invites a deliberate pace, with the reader filling in the blanks, taking time away for meditation, then coming back for more inspiration. Never descending into triteness, Kornfield is realistic on tough issues, encouraging awareness and persistence over resignation and indifference. If you yearn to open your heart, open the pages of Kornfield's latest. --Brian Bruya

Book Description ...You hold in your hand an invitation:

To remember the transforming power of forgiveness and lovingkindness. To remember that no matter where you are and what you face, within your heart peace is possible.

In this beautiful and graceful little book, internationally renowned Buddhist teacher and meditation master Jack Kornfield has collected age-old teachings, modern stories, and time-honored practices for bringing healing, peace, and compassion into our daily lives. Just to read these pages offers calm and comfort. The practices contained here offer meditations for you to discover a new way to meet life’s greatest challenges with acceptance, joy, and hope.


6. Peace and Conflict Research Centers, Institutes, Organizations & Networks

* http://csf.colorado.edu/peace/orgs1.html

Last Updated: Thursday, 26-Sep-2002 16:22:10 MDT Includes:

University-Affiliated Centers, Institutes and Programs Associations, Consortiums, and Organizations Virtual Networks Relevant Organizations, NGOs, and Networks


Action Without Borders and Idealist

The African Peace Research Association (AFPRA)

The Albert Einstein Institution,

Harvard University (Cambridge, MA, USA)

American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), (Philadelphia, PA, USA)

Amnesty International, (London, UK)

The ARIA Group, The McGregor School, Antioch University (Yellow Springs, OH, USA)

The Arias Foundation for Peace and Human Progress (San Jose, Costa Rica) The Asia-Pacific Peace Research Association (APPRA)

The Atrium Society


Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management (Berlin, Germany)


The Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace, (Okotoks, AB, CA)

The Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, (New York, NY, USA)

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, (Washington, D.C., USA)

The Carter Center, Emory University (Atlanta, GA, USA)

Center for Conflict Studies, University of Marburg (Marburg, Germany)

The Center for Defense Information (CDI)

The Center for Global Peace, American University (Washington, D.C., USA)

Centre for Peace and Security Studies, Free University of Brussels (Brussels, Belgium)

Centre for World Dialogue (Nicosia, Cyprus)

Centro Studi per la Pace (Ferrara, Italy)

Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade (COAT) (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)

Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers

The Commission on Global Governance

Conciliation Resources (London, UK)

Concours Jean-Pictet Competition(Pleadings & Simulation in International Humanitarian Law)

The Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado (Boulder, CO, USA)

Conflict Research Unit, Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael' (The Hague)

Consortium on Peace Research, Education, & Development (COPRED)

The Cyprus Peace Center


DFAX News Digests and Reports

Dialogue Webpage for Conflicts Worldwide

Directory of Organizations for Conflict Prevention in Asia and the Pacific


End the Arms Race

Equipo Interdisciplinario Capacitador en Mediación Educativa (Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina)

European Platform for Conflict Prevention and Transformation (Utrecht, The Netherlands)

Exploring Global Conflict: An Internet Guide to the Study of Conflict


Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)

The Foundation for Prevention & Early Resolution of Conflict (PERC) Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War (by R.J. Rummel)


Gandhi Net: (Reviews of WWW pages on Gandhi)

German Association for Peace and Conflict Research (Arbeitsgemeischaft fuer Friedens- und

Konfliktforschung AFK) (Cologne, Germany)

Global Exchange

The Global Site

Global Volunteers

Growing Communities for Peace


Hague Appeal For Peace Conference

Human Rights Resource Center

Human Rights Watch



Information Unit Peace Research Bonn

Arbeitsstelle Friedensforschung Bonn (AFB), (Bonn, Germany)

Initiative for Social Action and Renewal in Eurasia (ISAR)

Initiative for Violence-Free Families

Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity (INCORE), University of Ulster, UK Peace Agreements (full texts),

INCORE's Conflict Data Service

Internet Resources on Peace, Conflicts and International Women's Human Rights, Phyllis Holman Weisbard

Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR), George Mason University (Fairfax, VA, USA)

Institute for Global Communications (IGC): ConflictNet, EcoNet, PeaceNet, etc.

Institute for International Mediation and Conflict

Resolution (IIMCR) (Washington, DC, USA)

Institute for Peace Science, Hiroshima

University (IPSHU) (Hiroshima, Japan)

Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR) (London, UK)

Institute of Peace & Conflict Studies, Conrad Grebel College University of Waterloo (Waterloo, Canada)

Institute on Global Conflict & Cooperation (IGCC), University of California, (San Diego, CA, USA)

International Association for Conflict Management (IACM), Washington University (St.Louis, MO, USA)

International Center for Ethics, Justice and Public Life, Brandeis University (Waltham, MA, USA)

International Center for Peace and Development (Napa, CA, USA)

International Directory of Conflict Prevention Organisations (European Platform for Conflict Prevention and Transformation)

Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution (Washington, DC, USA)

International Peace Bureau (IPB)

International Peace Research Association (IPRA)

International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)

International Relations and Security Network (ISN)

International Studies Association Network (ISA) (Links to) Italian Peace Research websites (by Giovanni Scotto)


The Japan Center for Preventive Diplomacy (Tokyo, Japan)

The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN, USA)


Center for Applied Conflict Management (CACM), Kent State University (Kent, OH, USA)


Lombard Mennonite Peace Center


Mahatma Gandhi Research and Media Service (GandhiServe)

Institute for Media, Peace and Security, University for Peace (Paris, France)

Millennium Form

Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse


Nation Planet (a link site on nationalism by Paul Treanor)

National Institute for Dispute Resolution (NIDR)

The Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael

The Nobel Prize Internet Archive and Nobel Peace Prize Winners

Nonviolence International

The Nonviolence Web

Nuclear Age Peace Foundation

The Nuclear Files


Un Patchwork pour la Paix " (A Patchwork for Peace) (Ivry-sur-Seine, France)

Pax Christi International (Brussels, Belgium)

Peace Agreements (full texts),

INCORE's Conflict Data Service, University of Ulster, UK

Peace Brigades International (PBI)

Peace Education Commission (PEC) of IPRA

Peace Pledge Union

Peace Research Institute -

Dundas (Dundas, ON, CA)

Peace Research Institute,

International Christian University (Tokyo, Japan)

Peace Resource Center

The Peace

Studies Association (PSA)

The Peace Studies Association of Japan

PeaceWeb (formerly known as NCPCR)


The Program on Negotiation, Harvard University,

Harvard Law School (Cambridge, MA, USA)

The Program on Nonviolent Sanctions and Cultural Survival, Harvard University (Cambridge, MA, USA)

The Protocol for the Assessement of Nonviolent Direct Action (PANDA)

The Project on Environmental Scarcities, State

Capacity, and Civil Violence, Peace & Conflict Studies Program, University of Toronto

Project Ploughshares

Public Education for Peace Society


Radio for Peace International (El Rodeo, Costa Rica)

RESOLVE (Washington, D.C., USA)


S. Brian Willson's Web Page

Search For Common Ground

Social Science Research Council (SSRC)

Global Security and Cooperation Program(GSC)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

"The Strange War: Stories for a Culture of Peace" (by Martin Auer)


Tabula Rasa Institute

Taiwan Security Research

Tampere Peace Research Institute (TAPRI), University of

Tampere (Finland)

TOC For Education (a nonprofit

foundation which donates conflict resolution workshops to educators)

Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research (Tokyo, Japan & Honolulu ,HI)

Training for Change

Transparency International (Berlin, Germany)

Tribuna de la Mediterrània


United Nations (UN) homepage

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

UNESCO's Transdisciplinary Project Towards a Culture of Peace

The United Nations University (UNU) (Headquarters: Tokyo, JAPAN)

U.S. Insitute of Peace (USIP) (Washington, DC, USA)

University of Minnesota Human Rights Center and Peace Resource Center



Victim Offender Mediation Association

Volunteers for Peace International Workcamps


Women Waging Peace, Women & Public Policy Program, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (Cambridge, MA)

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)

The WWW Virtual Library: International Affairs

Resources: Peace, Conflict Resolution, and International Security Relevant Organizations, NGOs, and Networks:

American Refugee Committee International

Humanitarian Resource Institute

The Loka Institute "Making Science and Technology Responsive to Democratically Decided Social and Environmental Concerns. The Loka Institute is a non-profit research and advocacy

organization concerned with the social, political, and environmental repercussions of

science and technology."

Relief Web

Second Nature (Education for Sustainability)

Seeds of Peace

Together Against the Death Penalty (ECPM) (Paris, France)


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The Los Angeles Buddhist-Catholic Dialogue:



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