Gemstones of the Good Dhamma

An Anthology of Verses
from the Pali Scriptures

Compiled and translated by 

Ven. S. Dhammika

The Wheel Publication No. 342/344
ISBN 955-24-0001-5 

Copyright (C) 1987 Buddhist Publication Society 

Buddhist Publication Society
P.O. Box 61

54, Sangharaja Mawatha

Kandy, Sri Lanka 




The discourses of the Buddha and his direct disciples have been collected together into a huge body of literature known as the Sutta Pitaka. Made up of both prose and verse, much of this literature is little known to the average Buddhist because of its great size and also because in both style and content it is highly philosophical. One selection of this literature is, however, very well known. It is the Dhammapada, a collection of four hundred and twenty-three verses on various aspects of the Buddha's teachings. The Dhammapada's convenient size, pithy wisdom and, at times, great beauty has made it by far the most popular book in the Sutta Pitaka. 

However, many other verses of equal relevance and appeal are to be found scattered throughout the Sutta Pitaka which remains virtually unknown. I thought it useful, therefore, to collect some of these verses, arrange them according to subject, and present them in such a way that they may enrich the faith and deepen the understanding of those who read them. Most of the verses are the words of the Buddha himself; a lesser number is attributed to his enlightened disciples. But even these reflect the spirit of the Buddha's Dhamma, for it is said: "That which is well spoken is the word of the Buddha." (A. IV, 164). 

This small work is dedicated to my good friend, Miss Constance Sandham. May these "Gemstones of the Good Dhamma" illuminate the path so that all beings may attain Nibbana! 

About the Author 

Venerable S. Dhammika was born in Australia and developed an interest in Buddhism in his early teens. At the age of twenty-two he went to India and was ordained as a Buddhist monk under the Ven. M. Sangharatana Mahathera. He later moved to Sri Lanka where he taught meditation for several years in the Kandy district. He now lives and teaches in Singapore. 

1. Ayacana (Request) [^] 

1. Namo te purisaja??a
namo te purisuttama

sadevakasmim lokasmim

natthi te patipuggalo. 
Homage to you so nobly bred.
Homage to you amongst men supreme.

Peerless are you in all the world.

May all worship be given to you. 
2. Namo te buddha vir'atthu
vippamutto'si sabbadhi


tassa me saranam bhava. 
Homage to you, Enlightened Hero,
you who are completely free.

I have fallen into great distress,

be my refuge and my shelter. 
3. Passam'aham devamanussaloke
aki?canam brahmanam iriyamanam

tam tam namassami samantacakkhu

pamunca mam Sakka kathamkathahi. 
In the world of gods and men, I see
this brahmin true, this simple man.

You I worship, All-seeing One,

so free me Sakka,[1] from my doubts. 
4. Anusasa brahme karunayamano
vivekadhammam yam aham vija??am

yathaham akaso'va avyapajjamano

idh'eva santo asito careyyam. 
O Brahma,[2] out of compassion teach me
the lofty Dhamma so I may understand,

and relying on nothing else,

may live unclouded like the sky. 
5. Ye ca samkhatadhammase
ye ca sekha puthu idha

tesam me nipako iriyam

puttho pabruhi marisa. 
Those who have understood the Dhamma
and those who train themselves in it:

O wise and truly gracious one,

tell me how they live their lives. 
* * *

2. Dhammavagga (Dhamma) [^] 

6. Kittayissami te dhammam
ditthe dhamme anitiham

yam viditva sato caram

tare loke visattikam. 
I will teach you a Dhamma,
not hearsay but to be directly seen.

Whoever discovers it and knows it,

and lives by it with mindfulness,

will transcend craving for the world. 
7. Suvijano bhavam hoti
suvijano parabhavo

Dhammakamo bhavam hoti

dhammadessi parabhavo. 
Prosperity in life is plain,
decline in life is also plain:

one who loves the Dhamma prospers,

one who hates the Dhamma declines. 
8. Yo ca dhammam abhi??aya
dhammam a??aya pandito

rahado va nivato ca

anejo vupasammati. 
Thoroughly understanding the Dhamma
and freed from longing through insight,

the wise one rid of all desire

is calm as a pool unstirred by wind. 
9. Yesam dhamma asammuttha
paravadesu na niyare

te sambuddha sammada??a

caranti visame samam. 
Those to whom the Dhamma is clear
are not led into other doctrines;

perfectly enlightened with perfect knowledge,

they walk evenly over the uneven. 
10. Na udakena suci hoti
bahv ettha nhayati jano

yamhi sacca? ca dhammo ca

so suci so ca brahmano. 
Not by water is one made pure
though many people may here bathe,[3]

but one in whom there is truth and Dhamma,

he is pure, he is a brahmin. 
11. Ujuko nama so maggo
abhaya nama sa disa

ratho akujano nama

dhammacakkehi samyuto. 
The path is called "straight,"
without fear" is the destination;

the carriage is called "silent"

and its wheels are right effort. 
12. Hiri tassa apalambo
saty-assa parivaranam

dhammaham sarathim brumi

sammaditthipure javam. 
Conscience is the rails and
mindfulness the upholstery,

Dhamma is the driver and

right view runs ahead of it. 
13. Yassa etadisam yanam
itthiya purisassa va

sa ve etena yanena

nibbanassa'eva santike. 
And whether it be a woman,
or whether it be a man,

whoever travels by this carriage

shall draw close to Nibbana. 
14. Ye keci osadha loke
vijjanti vividha bahu

dhammosadhasamam na'tthi

etam pivatha bhikkhavo. 
Of all the medicines in the world,
manifold and various,

there is none like the medicine of Dhamma:

therefore, O monks, drink of this. 
15. Dhammosadham pivitvana
ajaramarana siyum

bhavayitva ca passitva

nibbuta upadhikkhaye. 
Having drunk this Dhamma medicine,
you will be ageless and beyond death;

having developed and seen the truth,

you will be quenched, free from craving. 
* * *

3. Kilesavagga (The Defilements) [^] 

16. Kamayogena samyutta
bhavayogena cubhayam

ditthiyogena samyutta

avijjaya purakkhata

satta gacchanti samsaram

Bound by desire, tied to becoming,
fettered tightly by false opinions,

yoked to ignorance, whirled around:

thus beings wander through samsara,

dying only to be born again. 
17. Na hira??asuvannena
parikkhiyanti asava

amitta vadhaka kama

sapatta sallabandhana. 
Neither gold nor minted coins
can make the defilements disappear.

Sense desires are enemies and killers,

hostile darts, rigid bonds. 
18. Ummadana ullapana
kama cittapamathino

sattanam samkilesaya

khippam marena odditam. 
Desire is agitating and deceiving,
a source of mental pain,

a net cast out by Mara[4]

to entangle and defile beings. 
19. Pabbatassa suvannassa
jatarupassa kevalo

dvitta va nalam ekassa

iti vidva sama? care. 
Were there a mountain all made of gold,
doubled that would not be enough

to satisfy a single man:

know this and live accordingly. 
20. Kodhano dubbanno hoti
atho dukkham pi seti so

atho attham gahetvana

anattham adhipajjati

tato kayena vacaya

vadham katvana kodhano. 
How ugly is the angry man!
His sleep is without comfort;

despite his wealth he is always poor.

Filled with anger as he is, he wounds

by acts of body and speech. 
21. Hanta labhati hataram
jetaram labhati jayam

akkosako ca akkosam

rosetara? ca rosako

atha kamma vivattena

so vilutto vilumpati. 
One who kills gets a killer,
one who conquers gets a conquerer,

one who reviles gets reviled.

Thus as a result of his own actions

the spoiler will in turn be spoiled. 
22. Natth'a??o ekadhammo pi
yeneva nivuta paja

samsaranti ahorattam

yatha mohena avuta. 
There is no other single thing
by which the human race is hindered,

by which it wanders day and night,

so much as by this: delusion. 
23. Imesu kira sajjanti
eke samanabrahmana

viggayha nam vivadanti

jana ekangadassino. 
How they cling and how they wrangle,
yet claim to be recluses and brahmins.

Quarrelling and clinging to their opinions,

they see only one side of things. 
24. Ye ca rattim diva yutta

te nibbapenti ragaggim

niccam asubhasa??ino. 
Those who apply themselves, day and night
to the teachings of the Buddha

will quench the burning fire of lust

by the perception of the impure. 
25. Dosaggim pana mettaya
nibbapenti naruttama

mohaggim pana pa??aya

yayam nibbedhagamini. 
By love they will quench the fire of hate,
by wisdom the fire of delusion.

Those supreme men extinguish delusion

with wisdom that breaks through to truth. 
* * *

4. Danavagga (Giving) [^] 

26. Na samane na brahmane
na kapaniddhike na vanibbake

labbhana samvibhajeti

annam pana?ca bhojanam

tam ve avutthikasamo'ti

ahu nam purisadhamam. 
Not with recluses or brahmins,
neither with the poor and needy

does the base man share his food

or give any drink or sustenance.

People say that selfish man

is like a drought, a rainless sky. 
27. Ekaccanam na dadati
Ekaccanam pavecchati

tam ve padesavassiti

ahu medhavino jana. 
One who shares his wealth with some,
but does not gladly give to others,

is only like a local shower:

in such a way the wise describe him. 
28. Subhikkhavaco puriso

amodamano pakireti

detha detha ti bhasati. 
But one who rains down bountiful gifts,
gladly giving here and there

out of compassion for all beings,

and who always says "Give, give, --" 
29. Yathapi megho thanayitva
gajjayitva pavassati

thalam ninna?ca pureti

abhisandanto varina

evam eva idh'ekacco

puggalo hoti tadiso. 
This type of person is like
a giant cloud filled with rain,

thundering and pouring down

refreshing water everywhere,

drenching the highlands and lowlands too,

generous without distinctions. 
30. Dhammena samharitvana
utthanadhigatam dhanam

tappeti annapanena

samma satte vanibakke. 
With his wealth collected justly,
won through his own efforts,

he shares both food and drink

with beings who are in need. 
31. Yathapi kumbho sampunno
yassa kassaci adhokato

vamate udakam nissesam

na tattha parirakkhati. 
Just as a pot filled with water
if overturned by anyone,

pours out all its water

and does not hold any back. 
32. Tath'eva yacke disva

dadahi danam nissesam

kumbho viya adhokato. 
Even so, when you see those in need,
whether low, middle or high,

then give like the overturned pot,

holding nothing back. 
33. Dana? ca peyyavajja? ca
atthacariya ca ya idha

samanattata dhammesu

tattha tattha yatharaham

ete kho sangaha loke

rathass'ani va yayato. 
Generosity, kind words,
doing a good turn for others,

and treating all people alike:

these bonds of sympathy are to the world

what the lynch-pin is to the chariot wheel. 
34. Annado balado hoti
vatthado hoti vannado

yanado sukhado hoti

dipado hoti cakkhudo. 
Giving food one gives strength,
giving clothes one gives beauty,

giving lamps one gives sight,

giving transport one gives delight. 
35. So ca sabbadado hoti
yo dadati upassayam

amatam dado ca so hoti

yo dhammam anusasati. 
Giving shelter one gives all;
but one who instructs in the Dhamma,

the excellent teaching of the Buddha,

such a person gives ambrosia. 
* * *

5. Silavagga (Virtue) [^] 

36. Silam ev'idha sikkhetha
asmim loke susikkhitam

silam hi sabbasampattim

upanameti sevitam. 
Here in the world one should train
carefully to purify virtue;

for virtue when well cultivated

brings all success to hand. 
37. Yo panam natipateti
musavadam na bhasati

loke adinnam nadiyati

paradaram na gacchati. 
Not harming living beings,
not speaking lies, taking nothing

in all the world unasked, nor

going to the wives of other men. 
38. Suramerayapanam ca
yo naro nanuyunjati

pahaya pa?ca verani

silava iti vuccati. 
And never drinking intoxicants:
One who gives up these five harmful acts

and does not engage in them

is truly called a virtuous man. 
39. Adi silam patittha ca
kalyanana? ca matukam

pamukham sabbadhammanam

tasma silam visodhaye. 
Virtue is the foundation,
the forerunner and origin

of all that is good and beautiful;

therefore one should purify virtue. 
40. Silam balam appatimam
silam avudham uttamam

silam abharanam settham

silam kavacam abbhutam. 
Virtue is a mighty power,
Virtue is a mighty weapon,

Virtue is the supreme adornment,

Virtue is a wonderful armour. 
41. Na jacca vasalo hoti
na jacca hoti brahmano

kammana vasalo hoti

kammana hoti brahmano. 
One is not low because of birth
nor does birth make one holy.

Deeds alone make one low,

deeds alone make one holy. 
42. Ananganassa posassa
niccam sucigavesino

valaggamattam papassa

abbhamattam va khayati. 
To one who is without evil,
always striving for purity,

a wrong the size of a hair tip

seems as big as a rain cloud. 
43. Pu??am eva so sikkheyya
ayataggam sukhundrayam

dana?ca samacariya?ca

mettacitta?ca bhavaye. 
Train yourself in doing good
that lasts and brings happiness.

Cultivate generosity, the life of peace,

and a mind of boundless love. 
44. Silam ajarasa sadhu
saddha sadhu adhitthita

pa??a naranam ratanam

pu??am corehyahariyam. 
The good luck of virtue never fades,
faith also brings great good.

Wisdom is man's most precious gem,

merit no thief can ever steal. 
45. Sabbada silasampanno
pa??va susamahito

ajjhattacinti satima

ogham tarati duttaram. 
In every virtue all-accomplished,
with wisdom full and mind composed,

looking within and ever mindful -

thus one crosses the raging flood. 
* * *

6. Vacavagga (Speech) [^]

46. Purisassa hi jatassa
kuthari jayate mukhe

yaya chindati attanam

balo dubbhasitam bhanam. 
Every fool who is born
has an axe within his mouth

with which he cuts himself

when he uses wrong speech. 
47. Tam eva vacam bhaseyya
yay'attanam na tapaye

pare ca na vihimseyya

sa ve vaca subhasita. 
One should utter only words
which do no harm to oneself

and cause no harm for others:

that is truly beautiful speech. 
48. Piyavacam eva bhaseyya
ya vaca patinandita

yam anadaya papani

paresam bhasate piyam. 
Speak kind words, words
rejoiced at and welcomed,

words that bear ill-will to none;

always speak kindly to others. 
49. Tass'eva tena papiyo
yo kuddham patikujjhati

kuddham appatikujjhanto

sangamam jeti dujjayam. 
The worse of the two is he
who, when abused, retaliates.

One who does not retaliate

wins a battle hard to win. 
50. Jayam ve ma??ati balo
vacaya pharusam bhanam

jaya?c'ev'assa tam hoti

ya titikkha vijanato. 
The fool thinks he has won a battle
when he bullies with harsh speech,

but knowing how to be forbearing

alone makes one victorious. 
51. Yam samano bahu bhasati
upetam atthasamhi tam

janam so dhammam deseti

janam so bahu bhasati. 
When the recluse speaks much
it is only to speak about the goal.

Knowingly he teaches the Dhamma,

knowingly he speaks much. 
52. Yo ve na byadhati patva
parisam uggahavadinam

na ca hapeti vacanam

na ca chadeti sasanam. 
If one addresses those who wish
to learn, without wavering, imparting

understanding, opening up and not

obscuring the teaching. 
53. Asandittha? ca bhanati
pucchito na ca kuppati

sa ve tadisako bhikkhu

duteyyam gantum arahati. 
Speaking without hesitation nor
getting angry when asked a question,

a monk like this is worthy

to proclaim the teachings. 
54. Nabhasamanam jananti
missam balehi panditam

bhasamana? ca jananti

desentam amatam padam

bhasaye jotaye dhammam

pagganhe isinam dhajam. 
If he does not speak up, others know
him not; he is just a wise man mixed

up with fools. But if he speaks about

and teaches the Deathless, others will

know him. So let him light up the Dhamma,

let him lift the sage's banner high. 
55. Yam buddho bhasati vacam
khemam nibbanapattiya

dukkhass 'antakiriyaya

sa ve vacanam uttama. 
The Buddha speaks words that lead
to the winning of security, the ending

of sorrow and the attaining of Nibbana.

Truly, this is the speech supreme. 
* * *

7. Bhogavagga (Wealth) [^]

56. Jivatevapi sappa??o
api vittaparikkhaya

pa??aya ca alabhena

vittavapi na jivati. 
The wise man continues to live
even if he should lose his wealth.

But the rich man without wisdom

is not alive even now. 
57. Appakena pi medhavi
pabhatena vicakkhano

samutthapeti attanam

anum aggiva santhamam. 
Starting off with little wealth,
the wise man skilfully increases it,

just as a sudden draft of wind

can make a spark of fire grow. 
58. Susamvihitakammantam
kalutthayam atanditam

sabbe bhogabhivaddhanti

gavo sausabha-m-iva. 
If he plans his project well,
rises early and works untiringly,

all his wealth will increase

like cows penned in with a bull. 
59. Pandito silasampanno
jalam aggiva bhasati

bhoge samharamanassa

bhamarass'eva iriyato. 
One who is virtuous and wise
shines forth like a blazing fire;

like a bee collecting nectar

he acquires wealth by harming none. 
60. Catudha vibhaje bhoge
sa ve mittani ganthati

ekena bhoge bhunjeyya

dvihi kammam payojaye

catuttha? ca nidhapeyya

apadasu bhavissati. 
He divides his wealth in four
and thus he wins friendship.

One portion he uses for his needs,

two portions for his business,

the fourth portion he saves

for times of emergency. 
61. Susamvihitakammanta

bhattu manapam carati

sambhatam anurakkhati. 
Deft and capable at her work,
in harmony with other people,

a wife is pleasing to her husband

and carefully looks after his wealth. 
62. Saddhasilena sampanna
vada??u vitamacchara

niccam maggam visodheti

sotthanam samparayikam. 
Endowed with faith and virtue,
speaking gently, free from selfishness:

such a woman purifies the pathway

leading to a future happiness. 
63. Saddhadhanam siladhanam
hiri ottappiyam dhanam

sutadhana? ca cago ca

pa??a ve sattamam dhanam. 
The wealth of faith and virtue's wealth,
the wealth of conscience and fear of blame,

the wealth of learning and giving too,

and as the seventh, wisdom's wealth. 
64. Yassa ete dhana atthi
itthiya purisassa va

adaliddo'ti tam ahu

amogham tassa jivitam. 
Those who have these treasures true,
be they women or be they men,

are not poor or destitute,

nor have their lives been lived in vain. 
65. Patirupakari dhurava
utthata vindate dhanam

saccena kittim pappoti

dadam mittani ganthati. 
Whoever acts, strives and toils
shall acquire wealth;

by truthfulness one gains good repute,

and by giving one binds friends. 
* * *

8. Mittatavagga (Friendship) [^]

66. Asant'assa piya honti
sante na kurute piyam

asantam dhammam roceti

tam parabhavato mukham. 
To be in communion with the bad,
and choose the ways of the bad,

to have no friends among the good,

this is a source of suffering. 
67. Sabbhir eva samasetha
sabbhi kubbetha santhavam

satam saddhammam a??aya

pa??a labbhati nannato. 
Consort only with the good,
come together with the good.

To learn the teaching of the good

gives wisdom like nothing else can. 
68. Putimaccham kusaggena
yo naro upanayhati

kusa pi puti vayanti

evam balupasevana. 
If one strings a piece of putrid fish
on a blade of kusa grass,

the grass will soon smell putrid too:

the same with one who follows a fool. 
69. Tagara?ca palasena
yo naro upanayhati

patta pi surabhi vayanti

evam dhirupasevana. 
If one wraps frankincense,
in any ordinary kind of leaf,

the leaf will soon smell sweet too:

the same with one who follows the wise. 
70. Tasma palasaputass'eva
natva sampatam attano

asante nupaseveyya

sante seveyya pandito. 
Remembering the example of the leaf,
and understanding the results,

one should seek companionship

with the wise, never with the bad. 
71. Sattho pathavato mittam
mata mittam sake ghare

sahayo atthajatassa

hoti mittam punappunam

sayam katani pu??ani

tam mittam samparayikam. 
A companion is a traveller's friend,
a mother is a friend at home,

one who helps in time of need

is a good and steady friend.

And the good deeds done by oneself

are one's true friends in time to come. 
72. Upakaro ca yo mitto
yo ca mitto sukhe dukkhe

atth'akkhayi ca yo mitto

yo ca mittanukampako. 
A friend who always lends a hand,
a friend in both sorrow and joy,

a friend who offers good counsel,

a friend who sympathises too. 
73. Ete pi mitte cattaro
iti vi??aya pandito

sakkaccam payirupaseyya

mata puttam va orasam. 
These are the four kinds of true friends:
one who is wise, having understood,

will always cherish and serve such friends

just as a mother tends her only child. 
74. Kalyanamitto yo bhikkhu
sappatisso sagaravo

karam mittanam vacanam

sampajano patissato

papune anupubbena

The monk who has a lovely friend,
who pays respect and deference to him,

and acts as his friend advises,

with mindfulness and comprehension clear,

will in time be freed from bonds;

all his fetters will be destroyed. 
75. Abbhatitasahayassa

n'atthi etadisam mittam

yatha kayagata sati. 
For one whose friend has passed away,
for one whose teacher no more lives,

there is no other friend in this world

like mindfulness of the body. 
* * *

9. Sutavagga (Learning) [^]

76. Sussusa sutavaddhani
sutam pa??aya vaddhanam

pa??aya attham janati

nato attho sukhavaho. 
Desire to learn increases learning;
learning makes wisdom increase.

By wisdom is the goal known;

knowing the goal brings happiness. 
77. Bahussutam upaseyya
suta? ca na vinasaye

tam mulam brahmacariyassa

tasma dhammadharo siya. 
One should follow the learned man,
and should not neglect learning,

for that is the foundation of the holy life.

Therefore be well versed in Dhamma. 
78. Bahussutam dhammadharam
sappa??am buddhasavakam

nekkham jambonadass'eva

ko tam ninditum arahati

devapi nam pasamsanti

brahmunapi pasamsito. 
Learned, knowing the Dhamma,
truly wise, the Buddha's disciple

is like the finest gold of Jambu.

Who can find any blame in him?

Even the gods sing his praise;

Brahma himself sings his praise.[5
79. Appassuto pi ce hoti
silesu susamahito

silato nam pasamsanti

nassa sampajjate sutam. 
If one who has little learning
is strong in virtue, others

will praise his virtue only,

because his learning is incomplete. 
80. Bahusuto pi ce hoti
silesu samahito

silato nam garahanti

tassa sampajjate sutam. 
If one who has much learning
is weak in virtue, others

will blame him for his conduct

though his learning is complete. 
81. Bahussuto pe ce hoti
silesu susamahito

ubhayena nam pasamsanti

silato ca sutena ca. 
But if one has much learning
and is also strong in virtue,

he will be praised for both

his virtue and his learning. 
82. Bahussuto appasutam
yo sutenatima??ati

andho padipadharo'va

tath'eva patibhati mam. 
A learned man who, because of his learning,
despises one with little learning,

seems to me like a stone-blind man

walking around with a lamp in hand. 
83. Tasma hi attahamena
mahantam abhikankhata

saddhammo garukatabbo

saram buddhana sasanam. 
One who loves his own true welfare,
who is concerned with his own good,

should pay homage to the Dhamma

and always remember the Buddha's words. 
84. Samma manam panidhaya
samma vacam abhasiya

samma kammani katvana

kayena idha puggalo. 
Having a rightly directed mind,
speaking rightly spoken speech,

doing here with the body

only deeds that are right and good. 
85. Bahussuto pu??akaro
apasmim idha jivite

kayassa bheda sappa??o

saggam so upapajjati. 
Learned, doing much that is worthy
even in a life that is short --

a wise person such as this

will be reborn in a happy place. 
* * *

10. Savakavagga (The Disciple) [^]

86. Matari pitari capi
yo samma patipajjati

tatagate va sambuddhe

athava tassa savake

bahun ca so pasavati

pu??am etadiso naro. 
If one behaves rightly
toward his mother and his father,

towards the Buddha well-attained,

and the disciples of the Buddha,

such a person generates

an abundant store of good. 
87. Bhikkhu ca silasampanno
bhikkuni ca bahussuta

upasako ca yo saddho

ya ca saddha upasika

ete kho sangham sobhenti

ete hi sanghasobhana. 
The monk well-possessed of virtue,
the nun who is widely learned,

male and female lay disciples

who are fully endowed with faith --

it is they who illuminate the Sangha,

"lights of the Sangha" they are called. 
88. Yassa sabrahmacarisu
garavo n'upalabbhati

araka hoti saddhamma

nabham puthaviya yatha. 
One who has no respect for those
who live the holy life with him,

is as far from this good Dhamma

as the sky is from the earth. 
89. Yassa sabrahmacarisu
garavo upalabbhati

so viruhati saddhamme

khette bijam'va bhaddakam. 
One who has respect for those
who live the holy life with him,

comes to growth in this good Dhamma

like a healthy seed in the field. 
90. Itthibhavo kim kayira
cittamhi susamahite

nanamhi vattamanamhi

sammadhammam vipassato. 
A woman's nature is unimportant
when the mind is still and firm,

when knowledge grows day by day,

and she has insight into Dhamma. 
91. Yassa nuna siya evam
itthaham puriso'ti va

ki?ci va pana asmiti

tam maro vattum arahati. 
One who thinks such thoughts
as "I am a woman" or "I am a man"

or any other thought "I am --"

Mara is able to address that one. 
92. Dummedhehi pasamsa ca
vi??uhi garaha ca ya

garaha'va seyyo vi??uhi

yan ce balappasamsana. 
The fools offer praise and the wise
offer blame. Truly the blame

of the wise is much better

than the praise of the fool. 
93. Sagara anagara ca
ubho a??o??anissita

aradhayanti saddhammam

yogakkhemam anuttaram. 
Home dwellers and the homeless both,
by depending upon each other

come to realize the good Dhamma,

the utter freedom from bondage. 
94. Anubandho pi ce assa
mahiccho va vighatava

ejanugo anejassa

nibbutassa anibbuto

giddho so vitagedhassa

passa yava?ca araka. 
Though physically close behind,
if one is acquisitive and restless,

how far is that turbulent one

from one freed from turbulence,

that burning one from one cooled,

that hankering one from the greedless! 
95. Sukha sanghassa samaggi
samagganan c'anuggaho

samaggarato dhammattho

yogakkhema na dhamsati. 
A happy thing is concord in the Sangha!
One who assists in making harmony,

loving concord and righteousness,

does not fall away from freedom. 
* * *

11. Cittavagga (Mind) [^]

96. Cittena niyati loko
cittena parikissati

cittassa ekadhammassa

sabb'eva vasam anvagu. 
The world is led around by mind,
by mind the world is plagued.

Mind is itself the single thing

which brings all else beneath its sway. 
97. Manopubbangama dhamma
manosettha manomaya

Manasa ce pasannena

bhasati va karoti va

tato nam sukhamanveti

chaya va anapayini. 
Mind precedes all things;
mind is their chief, mind is their maker.

If one speaks or does a deed

with a mind that is pure within,

happiness then follows along

like a never departing shadow. 
98. Sududdasam sunipunam

cittam rakkhetha medhavi

cittam guttam sukhavaham. 
Difficult to detect and very subtle,
the mind seizes whatever it wants;

so let a wise man guard his mind,

for a guarded mind brings happiness. 
99. Dunniggahassa lahuno

cittassa damatho sadhu

cittam dantam sukhavaham. 
Wonderful it is to train the mind
so swiftly moving, seizing whatever it wants.

Good is it to have a well-trained mind,

for a well-trained mind brings happiness. 
100. Phandanam capalam cittam
durakkham dunnivarayam

ujum karoti medhavi

usukaro'va tejanam. 
As a fletcher straightens an arrow,
even so one who is wise

will straighten out the fickle mind,

so unsteady and hard to control. 
101. Na tam mata pita kayira
a??e vapi ca nataka

sammapanihitam cittam

seyyaso nam tato kare 
No mother nor father nor
any other kin can do

greater good for oneself

than a mind directed well. 
102. Anabhijjhalu vihareyya
avyapannena cetasa

sato ekaggacittassa

ajjhattam susamahito. 
Love without covetous greed,
fill your mind with benevolence.

Be mindful and one-pointed,

inwardly stable and concentrated. 
103. Pa?ca kamaguna loke
manochattha pavedita

ettha chandam virejetva

evam dukkha pamuccati. 
There are five strands of sensual pleasure
with the mind as the sixth;

by overcoming desire for these

one will be freed from suffering. 
104. Mama selupamam cittam
thitam nanupakampati

virattam rajaniyesu

kuppaniye na kuppati

mam'evam bhavitam cittam

kuto mam dukkham essati. 
My mind is firm like a rock,
unattached to sensual things,

no shaking in the midst

of a world where all is shaking.

My mind has thus been well-developed,

so how can suffering come to me? 
105. Yo caram va yo tittham va
nisinno udava sayam

vitakkam samayitvana

vitakkopasame rato

bhabbo so tadiso bhikkhu

phutthum sambodhim uttamam. 
Whether he walks or stands
or sits or lies, a monk

should take delight in

controlling all thoughts.

Such a monk is qualified

to reach supreme enlightenment. 
* * *

12. Sikkhavagga (The Training) [^]

106. Atisitam atiunham
atisayam idam ahu

iti vissatthakammante

attha accenti manave. 
"It's too cold, it's too hot,
it's too late," with such excuses

one who gives up the practice

lets his opportunities slip. 
107. Yo ca sita? ca unha? ca
tina bhiyyo na ma??ati

karam purisakiccani

so sukha na vihayati. 
But one who looks on cold and heat
as no more obstructive than straw

and continues with the practice

does not fall short of happiness. 
108. Alinacitto ca siya
na capi bahu cintaye

niramagandho asito

So rid the mind of sloth and dullness,
give up thinking of many things.

Be healthy and unattached to pleasure,

be devoted to the holy life. 
109. Unudaro mitaharo
appich'assa alolupo

sa ve icchaya nicchato

aniccho hoti nibbuto. 
Lean in body, frugal in food,
content with little and undisturbed,

vain wishes gone and craving stilled,

thus the wantless attain Nibbana. 
110. Sa jhanapasuto dhiro
vanante ramito siya

jhayetha rukkhamulasmim

attanam abhitosayam. 
One who is stable in meditation
will delight at the woodland's edge,

meditating at the foot of a tree

until joy and contentment are won. 
111. Kamacchando ca vyapado
thinamiddha? ca bhikkhuno

uddhaccam vicikiccha ca

sabbaso va na vijjati. 
Sense desire, ill will,
sloth, laziness, agitation,

and doubt are not found

in a true and worthy monk. 
112. Na sabbato mano nivaraye
na mano sayatattam agatam

yato yato ca papakam

tato tato mano nivaraye. 
Do not hold back the mind from all,
for it is not yet put to sleep.

But whenever evil things arise,

then should the mind be held in check. 
113. Viriyasataccasampanno
yuttayogo sada siya

na ca appatva dukkhantam

vissasam eyya pandito. 
Possessed of energy and perserverance,
be always earnest in applying yourself.

The wise one should not be confident

until the end of suffering is reached. 
114. Samadhiratanamalassa
kuvitakka na jayare

na ca vikkipate cittam

etam tumhe pilandhatha. 
With the jewelled necklace of concentration,
wrong thoughts cannot arise

nor can the mind be distracted.

So let this be your adornment. 
115. Anapanasati yassa
paripunna subhavita

anupubbam paricita

yatha buddhena desita

so'mam lokam pabhaseti

abbha muto va candima. 
One who has gradually practised,
developed and brought to perfection

mindfulness of the in-and-out breath

as taught by the Enlightened One,

illuminates the entire world

like the moon when freed from clouds. 
* * *

13. Vayamavagga (Effort) [^]

116. Pamado rajo pamada
pamadanupatito rajo

appamadena vijjaya

abbulhe sallam attano. 
Indolence is dust;
dust comes in the wake of indolence.

With knowledge and vigilance

draw out the arrow from yourself. 
117. Niddasili sabhasili
anutthata ca yo naro

alaso kodhapannano

tam parabhavato mukham. 
When one loves company and sleep,
when one is lax and slack,

when one is often given to anger --

this is a source of suffering. 
118. Samvaro ca pahanam ca
bhavana anurakkhana

ete padhana cattaro

The effort to restrain, to abandon,
to develop and to maintain:

these are the four exertions

taught by the Kinsman of the Sun. 
119. Utthahatha nisidatha
no attho supitena vo?

aturanam hi ka nidda

sallaviddhana ruppatam? 
Arise! Sit up! Of what use
are your dreams? How can you

continue to sleep when you are sick,

pierced with the arrow of grief? 
120. Amogham divasam kayira
appena bahukena va

yam yam vijahate rattim

tadunan tassa jivitam. 
Make your day productive
whether by little or by much.

Every day and night that passes,

your life is that much less. 
121. Yo dandhakale dandheti
taraniye ca taraye

yoniso samvidhanena

sukham pappoti pandito. 
The wise one who hurries when
hurrying is needed and who slows down

when slowness is needed, is happy

because his priorities are right. 
122. Araddhaviriye pahitatte
niccam dalhaparakkame

samagge savake passa

esa budhana vandana.
See the disciples in perfect harmony,
resolute and making effort,

always firm in their progress --

this is the best worship of the Buddha. 
123. Niddam tandim vijambhikam
aratim bhattasammadam

viriyena nam panametva

ariyamaggo visujjhati. 
Sloth, torpor and drowsiness,
boredom and heaviness after meals --

by expelling these with energy

the noble path is purified. 
124. Saddhaya tarati ogham
appamadena annavam

viriyena dukkham acceti

pa??aya parisujjhati. 
The flood is crossed by faith,
by vigilance the sea is crossed,

pain is overcome with vigor

by wisdom one is purified. 
125. Ujumaggamhi akkhate
gacchatha ma nivattatha

attana coday'attanam

nibbanam abhiharaye. 
The straight path has been clearly shown:
walk forward and don't turn back.

Urge yourself onwards by yourself;

in that way attain Nibbana. 
* * *

14. Sativagga (Mindfulness) [^]

126. Sambadhe vapi vindanti
dhammam nibbanapattiya

ye satim saccalatthamsu

samma te susamahita. 
Even when obstacles crowd in,
the path to Nibbana can be won

by those who establish mindfulness

and bring to perfection equipoise. 
127. Sace dhavati te cittam
kamesu ca bhavesu ca

khippam nigganha satiya

kitthadam viya duppasum. 
If your mind runs wild among
sensual pleasures and things that arise,

quickly restrain it with mindfulness

as one pulls the cow from the corn. 
128. Ubhinnam attham carati
attano ca parassa ca

param sankupitam natva

yo sato upasammati. 
Knowing that the other person is angry,
one who remains mindful and calm

acts for his own best interest

and for the other's interest, too. 
129. Ubhinnam tikicchantanam
attano ca parassa ca

jana ma??anti balo'ti

ye dhammassa akovida. 
He is a healer of both
himself and the other person;

only those think him a fool

who do not understand the Dhamma. 
130. Yatam care yatam titthe
yatam acche yatam saye

yatam samminjaye bhikkhu

yathamenam pasaraye. 
Whether he walks, stands, sits
or lies, stretches out his limbs

or draws them in again, let a

monk do so with composure. 
131. Uddham tiriyam apacinam
yavata jagato gati

samavekkhita va dhammanam

khandhanam udayabbayam. 
Above, across or back again,
wherever he goes in the world

let him carefully scrutinise

the rise and fall of compounded things. 
132. Evam viharim atapim
santavuttim anuddhatam


sikkhamanam sada satam

satatam pahitatto'ti

ahu bhikkhum tathavidham. 
Living thus ardently,
at peace within, not restless

or mentally agitated,

training himself, always mindful:

people call such a monk

"one constantly resolute." 
133. Na so rajjati dhammesu
dhammam natva patissato

virattacitto vedeti tan

ca n'ajjhosaya titthati. 
Not excited by mental phenomena,
one knows them through mindfulness;

thus with a mind well detached

one understands and does not cling. 
134. Satipatthanakusala

vipassaka dhammadhara

dhammanagare vasantite. 
Those skilled in the foundations of mindfulness,
delighting in the enlightenment factors,

with knowledge of Dhamma and keen insight,

live in the city of Dhamma. 
135. Sammappadhanasampanno


parinibbaty anasavo. 
Possessed of persevering energy,
practising the foundations of mindfulness,

bedecked with the blossoms of freedom,

you will be cooled and undefiled. 
* * *

15. Attaparavagga (Oneself and Others) [^]

136. Sabbe tasanti dandassa
sabbesam jivitam piyam

attanam upamam katva

na haneyya na ghataye. 
All tremble at punishment.
Life is dear to all.

Put yourself in the place of others;

kill none nor have another killed. 
137. Attana'va katam papam
attana sankilissati

attana akatam papam

attana'va visujjhati

suddhi asuddhi paccattam

na??o a??am visodhaye. 
By doing evil, one defiles oneself;
by avoiding evil, one purifies oneself.

Purity and impurity depend on oneself:

no one can purify another. 
138. Attadattham paratthena
bahuna 'pi na hapaye

attadattham abhi??aya

sadatthapasuto siya. 
Let no one neglect his own welfare
for the welfare of others however much.

Clearly understanding one's own welfare

strive always for one's own true good. 
139. Attanameva pathamam
patirupe nivesaye

ath'a??am anusaseyya

na kilisseyya pandito. 
One should first establish onself
in what is proper and only then

try to instruct others. Doing this,

the wise one will not be criticized. 
140. Attana ce tatha kayira
yath'a??am anusasati

sudanto vata dammetha

atta hi kira duddamo. 
If only you would do what you teach others
then being yourself controlled

you could control others well.

Truly self-control is difficult. 
141. Yo c'attanam samukkamse
para? ca-m-avajanati

nihino sena manena

tam ja??a vasalo'iti. 
One who exalts himself
and disparages others

because of smugness and conceit;

know him as an outcaste man. 
142. Na paresam vilomani
na paresam katakatam

attano va avekkheyya

katani akatani ca. 
Look not to the faults of others,
nor to their omissions and commissions.

But rather look to your own acts,

to what you have done and left undone. 
143. Paravajjanupassissa
niccam ujjhanasa??ino

asava tassa vaddhanti

ara so asavakkhaya. 
When one looks down at others' faults
and is always full of envy,

one's defilements continually grow;

far is one from their destruction. 
144. Sudassam vajjam a??esam
attano pana duddasam

paresam hi so vajjani

opunati yathabhusam

attano pana chadeti

kalim'va kitava satho. 
Easily seen are the faults of others,
one's own are difficult to see.

By winnowing the chaff of others' faults,

one's own are obscured, like a crafty

fowler hidden behind the branches. 
145. Attana coday' attanam
patimase attam attana

so attagutto satima

sukham bhikkhu vihahisi. 
You yourself must watch yourself,
you yourself must examine yourself,

and so self-guarded and mindful,

O monk, you will live in happiness. 
* * *

16. Mettavagga I (Love I) [^]

146. Anatthajanano doso
doso cittappakopano

bhayam antarato jatam

tam jano navabujjhati. 
Hate brings great misfortune,
hate churns up and harms the mind;

this fearful danger deep within

most people do not understand. 
147. Duttho attham na janati.
duttho dhammam na passati

andham tamam tada hoti

yam doso sahate naram. 
Thus spoilt one cannot know the good,
cannot see things as they are.

Only blindness and gloom prevail

when one is overwhelmed by hate. 
148. Yo na hanti na ghateti
na jinati na japaye

mettam so sabbabhutesu

veram tassa na kenaci. 
He who does not strike nor makes
others strike, who robs not nor makes

others rob, sharing love with all that live,

finds enmity with none. 
149. Satimato sada bhaddam
satima sukham edhati

satimato su ve seyyo

vera na parimuccati. 
For the mindful one there is always good;
for the mindful one happiness increases;

for the mindful one things go better

yet he is not freed from enemies. 
150. Yassa sabbam ahorattam
ahimsaya rato mano

mettam so sabbabhutesu

veram tassa na kenaci. 
But he who both day and night
takes delight in harmlessness

sharing love with all that live,

finds enmity with none. 
151. Yo ve mettena cittena

uddham adho ca tiriya? ca

appamanena sabbaso. 
When one with a mind of love
feels compassion for all the world --

above, below and across,

unlimited everywhere. 
152. Appamanam hitam cittam
paripunnam subhavitam

yam pamanakatam kammam

na tam tatravasissati. 
Filled with infinite kindness,
complete and well-developed --

any limited actions one may have done

do not remain lingering in one's mind. 
153. Mettacitta karunika
hotha silesu samvuta

araddhaviriya pahitatta

niccam dalhaparakkama. 
Develop a mind full of love;
be compassionate and restrained in virtue;

arouse your energy, be resolute,

always firm in making progress. 
154. Yathapi ekaputtasmim
piyasmim kusali siya

evam sabbesu panesu

sabbattha kusalo siya. 
Just as a loving mother would guard
her only dearly beloved child,

so towards creatures everywhere

one should always wish for their good. 
155. Cittam ca susamahitam
vippasannam anavilam

akhilam sabbabhutesu

so maggo brahmapattiya. 
A mind composed, well-concentrated,
purified and undefiled,

full of kindness towards all beings --

this is the way that leads to Brahma. 
* * *

17. Mettavagga II (Love II) [^]

156. Yathapi udakam nama
kalyane papake jane

samam pharati sitena

pavaheti rajomalam. 
Just as water cools
both good and bad

and washes away all

impurity and dust. 
157. Tath'eva tvam pi ahitahite
samam mettaya bhavaya

mettaparamitam gantva

sambodhim papunissasi. 
In the same way you should develop thoughts
of love to friend and foe alike,

and having reached perfection in love,

you will attain enlightenment. 
158. "Yatha aham tatha ete
yatha ete tatha aham"

attanam upamam katva

na haneyya na ghataye. 
"As I am, so are others;
as others are, so am I."

Having thus identified self and others,

harm no one nor have them harmed. 
159. Apadakehi me mettam
mettam dipadakehi me

catuppadehi me mettam

mettam bahuppadehi me. 
I have love for the footless,
for the bipeds too I have love;

I have love for those with four feet,

for the many-footed I have love. 
160. Ma mam apadako himsi
ma mam himsi dipadako

ma mam catuppado himsi

ma mam himsi bahuppado. 
May the footless harm me not,
may the bipeds harm me not,

may those with four feet harm me not,

may those with many feet harm me not. 
161. Sabbe satta sabbe pana
sabbe bhuta ca kevala

sabbe bhadrani passantu

ma ka?ci papamagama. 
May all creatures, all living things,
all beings one and all,

experience good fortune only.

May they not fall into harm. 
162. Sabbamitto sabbasakho

mettam citta? ca bhavemi

abyapajjharato sada. 
I am a friend and helper to all,
I am sympathetic to all living beings.

I develop a mind full of love

and always delight in harmlessness. 
163. Asamhiram asamkuppam
cittam amodayam'aham

brahmaviharam bhavemi

I gladden my mind, fill it with joy,
make it immovable and unshakable.

I develop the divine states of mind

not cultivated by evil men. 
164. Tasma sakam paresam pi
katabba mettabhavana

mettacittena pharitabbam

etam buddhana sasanam. 
Therefore the meditation on love
should be done for oneself and others.

All should be suffused with love:

this is the teaching of the Buddha. 
165. Yo ca mettam bhavayati
appamanam patissato

tanu samyojana honti

passato upadhikkhayam. 
Whoever makes love grow
boundless, and sets his mind

for seeing the end of birth:

his fetters are worn thin. 
* * *

18. Sukhavagga (Happiness) [^]

166. Yo pubbe karaniyani
paccha so katum icchati

sukha so dhamsate thana

paccha ca m-anutappati. 
One who later wishes to do
the things he should have done before

falls away from happiness

and long afterwards repents. 
167. Kodham chetva sukham seti
kodham chetva na socati

kodhassa visamulassa

madhuraggassa brahmana

vadham ariya pasamsanti

tam hi chetva na socati. 
Slay anger and you will be happy,
slay anger and you will not sorrow.

For the slaying of anger in all its forms

with its poisoned root and sweet sting --

that is the slaying the nobles praise;

with anger slain one weeps no more. 
168. Yam pare sukhato ahu
tad ariya ahu dukkhato

yam pare dukkhato ahu

tad ariya sukhato vidu

passa dhammam durajanam

sammulh'ettha aviddasu. 
What others call happiness,
the noble call pain;

what others call pain,

the noble call happiness.

Behold this Dhamma hard to comprehend

by which the dull are utterly baffled. 
169. Sabbada va sukham seti
brahmano parinibbuto

yo na limpati kamesu

sitibhuto nirupadhi. 
Always happy is the holyman
who is wholly free within,

who is not stained by sense desires --

cooled is he and free from clinging. 
170. Yam ca kamasukham loke
yam c'idam diviyam sukham

tanhakkhayasukhassa te

kalam n'agghanti solasim. 
The happiness of sensual lust
and the happiness of heavenly bliss

are not equal to a sixteenth part

of the happiness of craving's end. 
171. Sabba asattiyo chetva
vineyya hadaye daram

upasanto sukham seti

santim pappuyya cetasa. 
With all his attachments cut,
with the heart's pinings subdued,

calm and serene and happy is he,

for he has attained peace of mind. 
172. Pamujjabahulo bhikkhu
dhamme buddhappavedite

adhigacche padam santam

sankharupasamam sukham. 
A monk who has abundant joy
in the Dhamma taught by the Buddha,

will attain peace and happiness,

with the calming of the constructs. 
173. Sukho viveko tutthassa
sutadhammassa passato

avyapajjham sukham loke

panabhutesu samyamo. 
Solitude is happiness for one who is content,
who has heard the Dhamma and clearly sees.

Non-affliction is happiness in the world --

harmlessness towards all living beings. 
174. Sukha viragata loke
kamanam samatikkamo

asmimanassa yo vinayo

etam ve paramam sukham. 
Freedom from lust is happiness in the world,
the going beyond all sensual desires.

But the crushing out of the conceit "I am" --

this is the highest happiness. 
175. Susukham vata nibbanam

asokam virajam khemam

yattha dukkham nirujjhati. 
The fully perfected Buddha has taught
Nibbana as the highest happiness --

without grief, immaculate, secure,

the state where all suffering ceases. 
* * *

19. Tunhivagga (Silence) [^]

176. Samanabhavam kubbetha
game akutthavanditam

manopadosam rakkheyya

santo anunnato care. 
Develop the quiet even state of mind,
when praised by some, condemned by others,

free the mind from hate and pride

and gently go your way in peace. 
177. Tan nadihi vijanatha
sobbhesu padaresu ca

sananta yanti kussubbha

tunhi yati mahodadhi. 
Learn this from the waters:
in mountain clefts and chasms,

loud gush the streamlets,

but great rivers flow silently. 
178. Yad unakam tam sanati
yam puram santam eva tam

addhakumbhupamo balo

rahado puro'va pandito. 
Things that are empty make a noise,
the full is always quiet.

The fool is like a half-filled pot,

the wise man like a deep still pool. 
179. Kayamunim vacamunim
manomunim anasavam

muni moneyyasampannam

ahu nihatapapakam. 
Silent in body, silent in speech,
silent in mind, without defilement,

blessed with silence is the sage.

He is truly washed of evil. 
180. Upasanto uparato
mantabhani anuddhato

dhunati papake dhamme

dumapattam va maluto. 
Peaceful, quiet and restrained,
speaking little, without conceit --

such a one shakes off all evil

as wind shakes leaves off a tree. 
181. Cakkhumassa yatha andho,
sotava badhiro yatha

pa??av'assa yatha mugo

balava dubbalor iva. 
Let one with sight be as though blind,
and one who hears be as though deaf,

let one with tongue be as though dumb,

let one who is strong be as though weak. 
182. Avitakkam samapanno

ariyena tunhibhavena

upeto hoti tavade. 
Having attained the meditative state
where all thoughts come to a stop,

the disciple of the perfected Buddha

thereby possesses the noble silence. 
183. Yatha jalo ca mugo ca
attanam dassaye tatha

nativelam pabhaseyya

sanghamajjhamhi pandito. 
The wise one in the midst of an assembly
should not speak excessively long.

He should let himself appear

like a simpleton or a dullard. 
184. Etam nagassa nagena
isadantassa hatthino

sameti cittam cittena

yam eko ramati vane. 
In this both mighty beings agree,
the enlightened sage and the elephant

with tusks resembling the poles of ploughs:

both love the solitude of the forest. 
185. Vihavihabhinadite
sippikabhirutehi ca

na me tam phandati cittam

ekattaniratam hi me 
Amidst the chirping and twittering
of the birds in the woods

this mind of mine does not waver

for I am devoted to solitude. 
* * *

20. Vipassanavagga (Insight) [^]

186. Pa?cangikena turiyena
na rati hoti tadisi

yatha ekaggacittassa

samma dhammam vipassato. 
Music from a five-piece ensemble
cannot produce as much delight

as that of a one-pointed mind

with perfect insight into things. 
187. Ye ca santacitta nipaka
satimanto ca jhayino

samma dhammam vipassanti

kamesu anapekkhino. 
Those peaceful in mind, discerning,
mindful and meditative,

having perfect insight into things,

unconcerned with sense desires, 
188. Appamadarata santa
pamade bhayadassino

abhabba parihanaya

nibbanass'eva santike. 
calm, delighting in diligence,
seeing fear in negligence,

can never fall away or fail,

for they are close to Nibbana. 
189. Atitam nanusocanti
nappajappanti nagatam

paccuppannena yapenti

tena vanno pasidati. 
They do not lament over the past,
they yearn not for what is to come,

they maintain themselves in the present,

thus their complexion is serene. 
190. Atitam nanvagameyya
nappatikankhe anagatam

yad atitam pahinan tam

appatta? ca anagatam. 
The past should not be followed after
and the future not desired;

what is past is dead and gone

and the future is yet to come. 
191. Paccuppanna? ca yo dhammam
tattha tattha vipassati

asamhiram asamkuppam

tam vidva m-anubruhaye. 
But whoever gains insight into things
presently arisen in the here and now,

knowing them, unmoved, unshaking,

let him cultivate that insight. 
192. Cittam upatthapetvana
ekaggam susamahitam

paccavekkhatha sankhare

parato no ca attato. 
Establish the mind, set it up
in one-pointed stability;

look upon all formations

as alien and as not self. 
193. Phenapindupamam rupam
vedana bubbulupama

maricikupama sa??a

sankhara kadalupama

mayupama?ca vi??anam. 
The body is like a ball of foam,
feelings are like bubbles,

perception is like a mirage,

mental constituents like a pithy tree,

and consciousness like a magic trick. 
194. Sabbalokam abhi??aya
sabbaloke yathatatham


sabbaloke anupayo. 
Knowing the world in full directly,
the whole world just as it is,

from the whole world he is freed;

he clings to naught in all the world. 
195. Sabbe sabbabhibhu dhiro

phutthassa parama santi

nibbanam akutobhayam. 
This sage all-victorious
with all bonds loosened,

has reached perfect peace:

Nibbana that is void of fear. 
* * *

21. Buddhavagga (The Buddha) [^]

196. Yathapi udake jatam
pundarikam pavaddhati

nopalippati toyena

sucigandham manoramam. 
As the lotus is born in the water
and grows up beneath the water,

yet remains undefiled by the water,

fragrant and beautiful. 
197. Tath'eva ca loke jato
buddho loke viharati

nopalippati lokena

toyena padumam yatha. 
Just so the Buddha is born in the world,
grows up and dwells in the world,

but like the lotus unstained by water

he is not defiled by the world. 
198. Mahasamuddo pathavi
pabbato anilo pi ca

upamaya na yujjanti

satthu varavimuttiya. 
The mighty ocean, the earth so broad,
the mountain peak or the wind

are not adequate similes to describe

the awesome freedom of the Teacher. 
199. Appameyyam paminanto
ko'dha vidva vikappaye

appameyyam pamayinam

nivutam ma??e akissavam. 
Who can measure the immeasurable one?
Who can fathom and determine him?

To try to measure the immeasurable one

betrays a mind devoid of wisdom. 
200. Ara??e rukkhamule va
su??agare va bhikkhavo

anussaretha sambuddham

bhayam tumhakam no siya. 
When in the forest, amongst the roots of trees,
or when retired to an empty place,

just call to mind the Buddha and

no fear or trembling will arise. 
201. Hitanukampi sambuddho
yad a??am anusasati


vippamutto tathagato. 
When the Buddha teaches others
he does so out of compassion,

because the Tathagata is wholly freed

from both favour and aversion. 
202. Yatha rattikkhaye patte
suriyass'uggamanam dhuvam

tath'eva buddhasetthanam

vacanam dhuvasassatam. 
It is certain that the sun will rise
when the darkness of night fades away;

so too the words of the supreme Buddha

are always certain and reliable. 
203. Satthugaru dhammagaru
sanghe ca tibbagaravo

appamadagaru bhikkhu


abhabbo parihanaya

nibbanass'eva santike. 
Deeply reverent towards the Teacher,
reverent towards the Dhamma and Sangha,

reverent towards vigilance,

having kindness and good will:

a monk like this cannot fail,

for he is close to Nibbana. 
204. Tena h'atappam karohi
idh'eva nipako sato

ito sutvana nigghosam

sikkhe nibbanam attano. 
So stir up your energy now,
be skilful and be ever mindful.

When you have heard my voice

train yourself to attain Nibbana. 
205. Ye pavutte satthipade
anusikkhanti jhayino

kale te appamajjanta

na macuvasaga siyum. 
Those who do their best and train
in all the teachings that I have taught,

alert and meditative, shall in time

go beyond the power of death. 
* * *

22. Kittisadda (Praise) [^]

206. Esa sutva pasidami
vaco te isisattama

amogham kira me phuttham

na mam va?cesi brahmano. 
Hearing your voice, O sage supreme,
my heart is filled with joy.

My questions truly were not in vain,

the brahmin did not deceive me. 
207. Anusasi mam ariyavata
anukampi anuggahi

amogho tuyham ovado

antevasi'mhi sikkhito. 
You have taught me the noble practice,
you were compassionate and helpful to me.

Your exhortation was not in vain

for I am now your trained disciple. 
208. Upemi buddham saranam
dhammam sangha? ca tadinam

samadiyami silani

tam me atthaya hehiti. 
I go for refuge to the Buddha,
to the Dhamma and to the Sangha.

I undertake the rules of conduct

which will be for my true welfare. 
209. Asokam virajam khemam
ariyatthangikam ujum

tam maggam anugacchami

yena tinna mahesino. 
I shall follow that eightfold path,
griefless, immaculate, secure,

the straight way by following which

the great sages have crossed the flood. 
210. So aham vicarissami
gama gamam pura puram

namassamano sambuddham

dhammassa ca sudhammatam. 
I will now go from town to town,
I will go from city to city,

praising the Buddha and the Dhamma

so excellently taught by him. 

Abbreviations [^]

A. ..... Anguttara Nikaya
D. ..... Digha Nikaya

Dhp. ..... Dhammapada

It. ..... Itivuttaka

J. ..... Jataka

JN. ..... Jataka Nidanakatha

M. ..... Majjhima Nikaya

Miln. ..... Milindapanha

S. ..... Samyutta Nikaya

Sn. ..... Sutta Nipata

Thag. ..... Theragatha

Thig. ..... Therigatha

Ud. ..... Udana 

References [^]

References to Dhammapada, Jataka, Sutta Nipata, Theragatha and Therigatha are to verse number; references to other works are to the volume and page number of the Pali Text Society editions. 

(An asterisk indicates the Buddha's own words) 

1. Sn. 544
2. S. I, 50

3. Sn. 1063

4. Sn. 1065

5. Sn. 1038

*6. Sn. 1053

*7. Sn. 92

*8. It. 91

*9. S. I, 4

*10. Ud. 6 

*11. S. I, 33
*12. S. I, 33

*13. S. I, 33

14. Miln. 335

15. Miln. 335

*16. A. II, 10

17. Thig. 347

18. Thig. 357

*19. S. I, 117

*20. A. IV, 96 

*21. S. I, 85
*22. It. 8

*23. Ud. 69

*24. It. 93

*25. It. 93

*26. It. 66

*27. It. 66

*28. It. 66

*29. It. 66

*30. It. 66 

31. JN. 128
32. JN. 129

*33. A. II, 32

*34. S. I, 32

*35. S. I, 32

36. Thag. 608

*37. A. III, 205

*38. A. III, 206

39. Thag. 612

40. Thag. 614 

*41. Sn. 136
42. Thag. 1001

*43. It. 16

*44. S. I, 37

*45. Sn. 174

*46. Sn. 657

47. Sn. 451

48. Sn. 452

*49. S. I, 162

*50. S. I, 163 

*51. Sn. 722
*52. A. IV, 196

*53. A. IV, 196

*54. A. II, 51

55. Sn. 454

56. Thag. 499

*57. J. 4

*58. J. 341

*59. D. III, 188

*60. D. III, 188 

*61. A. IV, 271
*62. A. IV, 271

*63. A. IV, 6

*64. A. IV, 6

*65. Sn. 187

*66. Sn. 94

*67. S. I, 17

*68. It. 68

*69. It. 68

*70. It. 68 

*71. S. I, 37
*72. D. III, 188

*73. D. III, 188

*74. It. 10

75. Thag. 1035

76. Thag. 141

77. Thag. 1027

*78. A. II, 8

*79. A. II, 8

*80. A. II, 8 

*81. A. II, 8
82. Thag. 1026

83. A. II, 21

*84. It. 60

*85. It. 60

*86. A. II, 4

*87. A. II, 8

88. Thag. 278

89. Thag. 391

90. S. I, 129 

91. S. I, 129
92. Thag. 668

*93. It. 111

*94. It. 91

*95. It. 12

*96. S. I, 39

*97. Dhp. 1

*98. Dhp. 36

*99. Dhp. 35

*100. Dhp. 33 

*101. Dhp. 43
*102. A. II, 29

*103. Sn. 171

104. Thag. 194

*105. It. 117

*106. D. III, 185

*107. D. III, 185

*108. Sn. 717

*109. Sn. 707

*110. Sn. 709 

*111. A. V, 16
*112. S. I, 14

113. Thag. 585

114. Miln. 337

115. Thag. 548

*116. Sn. 334

*117. Sn. 96

*118. A. II, 17

*119. Sn. 331

120. Thag. 451 

121. Thag. 293
122. Thig. 161

*123. S. I, 7

*124. Sn. 184

125. Thag. 637

*126. S. I, 48

127. Thag. 446

*128. S. I, 162

*129. S. I, 162

*130. It. 120 

*131. It. 120
*132. It. 121

133. Thag. 816

134. Miln. 342

135. Thag. 100

*136. Dhp. 130

*137. Dhp. 165

*138. Dhp. 166

*139. Dhp. 158

*140. Dhp. 159 

*141. Sn. 132
*142. Dhp. 50

*143. Dhp. 253

*144. Dhp. 252

*145. Dhp. 379

*146. It. 84

*147. It. 84

*148. It. 22

*149. S. I, 208

*150. S. I, 208 

151. J. 37
152. J. 38

153. Thag. 979

154. Thag. 33

155. S. IV, 118

156. JN. 168

157. JN. 169

*158. Sn. 705

*159. A. II, 72

*160. A. II, 72 

*161. A. II, 72
162. Thag. 648

163. Thag. 649

164. Miln. 394

*165. It. 21

166. Thag. 225

*167. S. I, 161

*168. S. IV, 127

*169. S. I, 212

*170. Ud. 11 

*171. S. I, 212
172. Thag. 11

*173. Ud. 10

*174. Ud. 10

175. Thag. 227

*176. Sn. 702

*177. Sn. 720

*178. Sn. 721

*179. It. 56

180. Thag. 2 

181. Thag. 501
182. Thag. 650

183. Thag. 582

*184. Ud. 42

185. Thag. 49

186. Thag. 398

*187. It. 40

*188. It. 40

*189. S. I, 5

*190. M. III, 131 

*191. M. III, 131
192. Thig. 177

*193. S. III, 142

*194. It. 122

*195. It. 122

196. Thag. 700

197. Thag. 701

198. Thag. 1013

199. S. I, 149

*200. S. I, 220 

*201. S. I, 111
202. JN. 122

*203. A. III, 331

*204. Sn. 1062

*205. S. I, 52

206. Thag. 1276

207. Thag. 334

208. Thig. 250

209. Thig. 361

210. Sn. 192 

Notes [^]

1. Sakka (Sakya): the Buddha's clan name. [Go back]

2. Brahma: he addresses the Buddha by the name of a deity. [Go back]

3. The Buddha's contemporaries believed that people could be purified by bathing in sacred rivers. [Go back]

4. Mara: the Tempter, the Evil One. [Go back]

5. Brahma: A high divinity in the ancient Indian pantheon. [Go back]

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