'almsgiving', liberality, offering. "He who gives alms,
bestows a fourfold blessing: he helps to long life, good appearance,
happiness and strength. Therefore long life, good appearance,
happiness and strength will be his share, whether amongst heavenly
beings or amongst men" (A. IV, 57).
blessings accrue to the giver of alms: the affection of many,
noble association, good reputation, self-confidence, and heavenly
rebirth" (see A. V, 34). Seven further blessings are given
in A. VII, 54.
especially the offering of robes, food, etc., to the monks,
is highly praised in all Buddhist countries of Southern Asia
as a fundamental virtue and as a means to suppress man's inborn
greed and egoism. But, as in any other good or bad action, so
also in offering gifts, it is the noble intention and volition
that really counts as the action, not the mere outward deed.
or liberality (dána), constitutes the first. kind of
meritorious activity, the two others being morality (síla,
q.v.) and mental development (bhávaná); s. puñña-kiriya-vatthu.
Liberality (cága) forms one of the 10 recollections (anussati,
q.v.) and almsgiving one of the 10 perfections (s. páramí).
bala: 'the ten powers (of a Perfect One); or, he who Possesses
the 10 P.', i.e. the Buddha. About him it is said (e.g., M.
12.; A. X, 21):
o monks, the Perfect One understands according to reality the
possible as possible, and the impossible as impossible ... the
result of past, present and future actions ... the path leading
to the welfare of all ... the world with its many different
elements ... the different inclinations in beings ... the lower
and higher faculties in beings ... the defilement, purity and
rising with regard to the absorptions, deliverances, concentration
and attainments ... remembering many former rebirths ... perceiving
with the divine eye how beings vanish and reappear again according
to their actions (karma) ... gaining, through extinction of
all taints, possession of 'deliverance of mind' and 'deliverance
through wisdom' ...."
marana (q.v.) - Contemplation of °: maranánussati
(q.v.) - As divine messenger: deva-dúta (q.v.).
cuti-citta, is one of the 14 functions of consciousness
karma: maranásaññá-kamma; s. karma.
function (of consciousness): s. viññána-kicca.
(in morality, wisdom, etc.): s. hána-bhágiya-síla.
- Liable to °, parihána-dhamma (q.v.).
s. kilesa, upakkilesa. -10 d. of insight:
vipassanúpakkilesa, s. visuddhi VI. - Round of
d., s. vatta (1).
s. vimutti, vimokkha. - The 8 kinds of d.
(or liberation), s. vimokkha. - D. of mind, d.
through voidness, boundless d. etc., s. ceto-vimutti.
- Desire for d., s. visuddhi (VI, 6). - D.
through wisdom; paññá-vimutti (q.v.). - 3 doors of d.
(or gateways of liberation) s. visuddhi (VI, 8).
consciousness: s. Tab. I. 32, 33.
moha-carita; s. carita.
s. moha, avijjá.
realm: asura-nikáya; s. apáya.
the spirits of the: peta (q.v.).
origination: paticca samuppáda (q.v.).
corporeality: upádá-rúpa (q.v.); further s. khandha
'exposition' of the doctrine, may be either an exposition
true in the highest sense (paramattha-desaná); or it
may not be true in the highest, but only in the conventional
sense (vohára-desaná). See paramattha.
for deliverance: s. visuddhi (VI, 6).
deliverance: s. vimokkha (1).
contemplation on: s. vipassaná (12).
evil views with fixed d.: niyata-micchá-ditthi
(q.v.). Men with fixed d.: niyata-puggala (q.v.).
overcoming, or liberation from, evil things through their
d.; samuccheda-pahána or samuccheda-vimutti;
karma: upaghátaka-kamma; s. karma.
s. adhimokkha, adhitthána.
votthapana (s. viññána-kicca).
the reality: s. vavatthána.
(lit: the Radiant Ones; related to Lat. deus): heavenly
beings, deities, celestials, are beings who live in happy worlds,
and who, as a rule, are invisible to the human eye. They are
subject, however, just like all human and other beings, to ever-repeated
rebirth, old age and death, and thus are not freed from the
cycle of existence and from misery. There are many classes of
The 6 classes of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere (kámávacara
or káma-loka; s. avacara loka), are Cátumahárájika-deva,
Távatimsa, Yáma, Tusita (s. Bodhisatta), Nimmána-rati, Paranimmita-vasavatti.
Cf. anussati. (6).
The heavenly beings of the fine-material sphere (rúpávacara
or rúpaloka) are:
Brahma-párisajja, Brahma-purohita, Mahá-brahmáno (s.
brahma-káyika-deva). Amongst these 3 classes will be
reborn those with a weak, medium or full experience of the 1st
absorption (jhána, q.v.).
Parittábha, Appamánábha, Ábhassara. Here will be reborn
those with experience of the 2nd absorption.
Paritta-subha, Appamána-subha, Subha-kinna (or kinha).
Here will be reborn those with experience of the 3rd absorption.
Vehapphala, Asañña-satta (q.v.), Suddhávása (q.v.;
further s. Anágámi). Amongst the first 2 classes will
be reborn those with experience of the 4th absorption, but amongst
the 3rd class only Anágámis (q.v.).
The 4 grades of heavenly beings of the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara
or arúpa-loka) are: the heavenly beings of the sphere
of unbounded space (ákásánañcáyatanúpaga-devá), of unbounded
consciousness (viññánañcáyatanúpaga-deva), of nothingness
(ákiñcaññáyatanúpaga devá), of neither-perception-nor-
non-perception (nevasaññá-násaññáyatanúpaga-devá). Here
will be reborn those with experience of the 4 immaterial spheres
(arúpáyatana; s. jhána 5-8).
Gods and the Universe by Francis Story (WHEEL 180/181).
'divine messengers', is a symbolic name for old age, disease
and death, since these three things remind man of his future
and rouse him to earnest striving. In A. III, 35, it is said:
you, o man, never see in the world a man or a woman eighty,
ninety or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable-roof,
bent down, resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm,
youth long since fled, with broken teeth, grey and scanty hair,
or baldheaded, wrinkled, with blotched limbs? And did it never
occur to you that you also are subject to old age, that you
also cannot escape it?
you never see in the world a man or a woman, who being sick,
afflicted and grievously ill, and wallowing in their own filth,
was lifted up by some people, and put down by others? And did
it never occur to you that you also are subject to disease,
that you also cannot escape it?
you never see in the world the corpse of a man or a woman, one
or two or three days after death, swollen up, blue-black in
colour, and full of corruption? And did it never occur to you
that you also are subject to death, that you also cannot escape
it?" - See M. 130.
'recollection of the heavenly beings'; s. anussati.
(mental): bhávaná (q.v.). - Effort to develop, s.
padhána. - Wisdom based on d. s. paññá. - Gradual
d. of the Eightfold Path in the 'progress of the disciple'
(from morality and understanding): vipatti (q.v.).
upásaka (q.v.) .
lit. the 'bearer', constitution (or nature of a thing),
norm, law (jus), doctrine; justice, righteousness; quality;
thing, object of mind (s. áyatana) 'phenomenon'. In all
these meanings the word 'dhamma' is to be met with in
the texts. The Com. to D. instances 4 applications of this term
guna (quality, virtue), desaná (instruction),
pariyatti (text), nijjívatá (soullessness, e.g.
"all dhammá, phenomena, are impersonal," etc.).
The Com. to Dhs. has hetu (condition) instead of desaná.
Thus, the analytical knowledge of the law (s. patisambhidá)
is explained in Vis.M. XIV. and in Vibh. as hetumhi-ñána,
knowledge of the conditions.
Dhamma, as the liberating law discovered and proclaimed by the
Buddha, is summed up in the 4 Noble Truths (s. sacca).
It forms one of the 3 Gems (ti-ratana, q.v.) and one
of the 10 recollections (anussati q.v.).
as object of mind (dhammáyatana, s. áyatana) may
be anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, conditioned
or not (cf. sankhára, 4), real or imaginary.
The 'Wheel (realm) of the Law', is a name for the doctrine
'set rolling' (established) by the Buddha, i.e. the 4 Noble
Truths (sacca, q.v.).
Perfect One, o monks, the Holy One, fully Enlightened One, in
the Deer Park at Isipatana near Benares, has set rolling (established)
the unsurpassed Wheel (realm) of the Law" (M. 141). Cf.
'exposition of the Doctrine (law)'; s. desaná.
mind-object-element (s. dhátu).
'contemplation of the mind-objects' is the last of the 4
foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána, q.v.)
the 'dhamma-devotee', is one of the 7 noble disciples
'recollection of the Law', is one of the 10 recollections
the 'analytical knowledge of the law, is one of the 4 kinds
of analytical knowledge (patisambhidá, q.v.).
'knowledge of the fixity of law, is a name for that 'insight
which is leading up' to the entrance into one of the 4 supermundane
paths (vutthána-gáminí-vipassaná, q.v.). In the Susima
Sutta (S. XII, 70) this (ascending) insight is called the 'knowledge
of the fixity of the law', namely: "At first, Susima, there
exists the knowledge of the fixity of the law, and later the
knowledge of Nibbána." (See Vis.M. XXI.)
'investigation of the law as factor of enlightenment', is
one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).
'mind-object as base' (áyatana, q.v.).
'treasures', a term for the following 7 qualities: faith,
morality, moral shame, moral dread, learning, liberality and
wisdom. Cf. A. VII, 5, 6.
'Treasures of the Noble', by Soma Thera (BODHI LEAVES B.
'elements', are the ultimate constituents of a whole.
The 4 physical elements (dhátu or mahá-bhúta),
popularly called earth, water, fire and wind, are to be understood
as the primary qualities of matter. They are named in Páli:
pathaví-dhátu, ápo-dhátu, tejo-dhátu, and váyo-dhátu.
In Vis.M. XI, 2 the four elements are defined thus: "Whatever
is characterized by hardness (thaddha-lakkkhana) is the
earth or solid-element; by cohesion (ábandhana) or fluidity,
the water-element; by heating (paripácana), the fire
or heat-element; by strengthening or supporting (vitthambhana),
the wind or motion-element. All four are present in every
material object, though in varying degrees of strength. If,
for instance, the earth element predominates, the material object
is called 'solid', etc. - For the analysis of the 4 elements,
The 18 physical and mental elements that constitute the conditions
or foundations of the process of perception, are:
visual organ (eye) 9. gustative object
auditory organ (ear) 10. body-impression
olfactory organ (nose) 11. eye-consciousness
gustatory organ (tongue) 12. ear-consciousness
tactile organ (body) 13. nose-consciousness
visible object 14. tongue-consciousness
sound or audible object 15. body-consciousness
odour or olfactive object
mind-element 17. mind-object
are physical; 11-16 and 18 are mental; 17 may be either physical
or mental. - 16 performs the function of advertence (ávajjana)
towards the object at the inception of a process of sensuous
consciousness; it further performs the function of receiving
(sampaticchana) the sensuous object. 18 performs, e.g.,
the function of investigation (santírana), determining
(votthapana) and registering (tadárammana) - (for
its other functions, s. Table I). For the 14 functions of consciousness,
M. 115; S. XIV and especially Vibh. II (Guide p. 28f), Vis.M.
the many further groupings of elements (enumerated in M. 115),
the best known is that of the 3 world-elements: the sensuous
world (káma-dhátu), the fine-material world (rúpa-dhátu),
the immaterial world (arúpa-dhátu); further the sixfold
group: the solid, liquid, heat, motion, space, consciousness
(pathaví, ápo, tejo, váyo, ákása, viññána; s. above I),
described in M. 140; see also M. 112.
'analysis (or determining) of the 4 elements', is described
in Vis.M. XI, 2, as the last of the 40 mental exercises (s.
bhávaná). In a condensed form this exercise is handed down
in D. 22 and M. 10 (s. satipatthána), but in detail explained
in M. 28, 62, 140. The simile of the butcher in M. 10 ("Just,
o monks, as a skilled butcher or butcher's apprentice, after
having slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions,
should sit down at the junction of four highroads; just so does
the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements")
is thus explained in Vis.M. XI.: "To the butcher, who rears
the cow, brings it to the slaughter-house, ties it, puts it
there, slaughters it, or looks at the slaughtered and dead cow,
the idea 'cow' does not disappear as long as he has not yet
cut the body open and taken it to pieces. As soon, however,
as he sits down, after having cut it open and taken it to pieces,
the idea 'cow' disappears to him, and the idea 'meat' arises.
And he does not think: 'A cow do I sell, or 'A cow do they buy.'
Just so, when the monk formerly was still an ignorant worldling,
layman or a homeless one, the ideas 'living being' or 'man'
or 'individual' had not yet disappeared as long as he had not
taken this body, whatever position or direction it had, to pieces
and analysed it piece by piece. As soon, however, as he analysed
this body into its elements, the idea 'living being' disappeared
to him, and his mind became established in the contemplation
of the elements." - (App.).
(lit. 'means of shaking off (the defilements)'); 'means
of purification', ascetic or austere practices. These are strict
observances recommended by the Buddha to monks as a help to
cultivate contentedness, renunciation, energy and the like.
One or more of them may be observed for a shorter or longer
period of time.
monk training himself in morality should take upon himself the
means of purification, in order to gain those virtues through
which the purity of morality will become accomplished, to wit:
fewness of needs, contentedness, austerity, detachment, energy,
moderation, etc." (Vis.M. II).
II describes 13 dhutangas, consisting in the vows of
wearing patched-up robes: pamsukúlik'anga,
wearing only three robes: tecívarik'anga,
going for alms: pindapátik'anga,
not omitting any house whilst going for alms: sapadánikanga,
eating at one sitting: ekásanik'anga,
eating only from the alms-bowl: pattapindik'anga,
refusing all further food: khalu-pacchá-bhattik'anga,
living in the forest: áraññik'anga,
living under a tree: rukkha-múlik'anga,
living in the open air: abbhokásik'anga,
living in a cemetery: susánik'anga,
being satisfied with whatever dwelling: yathá-santhatik'anga,
sleeping in the sitting position (and never lying down): nesajjik'anga.
13 exercises are all, without exception, mentioned in the old
sutta texts (e.g. M. 5, 113; A.V., 181-90), but never together
in one and the same place.
doubt, o monks, it is a great advantage to live in the forest
as a hermit, to collect one's alms, to make one's robes from
picked-up rags, to be satisfied with three robes" (A.I,
vow, e.g. of No. 1, is taken in the words: "I reject robes
offered to me by householders," or "I take upon myself
the vow of wearing only robes made from picked-up rags."
Some of the exercises may also be observed by the lay-adherent.
it may be mentioned that each newly ordained monk, immediately
after his being admitted to the Order, is advised to be satisfied
with whatever robes, alms-food, dwelling and medicine he gets:
"The life of the monks depends on the collected alms as
food ... on the root of a tree as dwelling ... on robes made
from patched-up rags ... on stale cow's urine as medicine. May
you train yourself therein all your life."
the moral quality of any action depends entirely upon the accompanying
intention and volition, this is also the case with these ascetic
practices, as is expressly stated in Vis.M. Thus the mere external
performance is not the real exercise, as it is said (Pug. 275-84):
"Some one might be going for alms; etc. out of stupidity
and foolishness - or with evil intention and filled with desires
- or out of insanity and mental derangement - or because such
practice had been praised by the Noble Ones...." These
exercises are, however properly observed "if they are taken
up only for the sake of frugality, of contentedness, of purity,
dhutanga practice in modern Thailand, see With Robes and
Bowl, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (WHEEL 82/83).
the 'divine eye', is one of the 6 higher powers (abhiññá,
q.v.), and one of the three kinds of knowledge (tevijjá,
heavenly world; s. deva.
the 'divine ear', is one of the 6 higher powers (abhiññá,
vigata-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
q.v.) . disciplinary code: s. pátimokkha.
thinking: vicára; s. vitakka-vicára.
one of the 'divine messengers' (deva-dúta, q.v.).
(regarding the whole world): s. sabbaloke anabhirati-saññá.
vippayutta-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions
(paccaya, q.v.) .
contemplation of: khayánupassaná, is one of the 18
chief kinds of insight (vipassaná, q.v.).
karma bearing fruit in this present life; s. karma.
(lit. 'sight'; Ö dis,
to see): view, belief, speculative opinion, insight. If not
qualified by sammá, 'right', it mostly refers to wrong
and evil view or opinion, and only in a few instances to right
view, understanding or insight (e.g. ditthi-ppatta, q.v.;
ditthi-visuddhi, purification of insight; ditthi-sampanna,
possessed of insight).
or evil views (ditthi or micchá-ditthi) are declared
as utterly rejectable for being a source of wrong and evil aspirations
and conduct, and liable at times to lead man to the deepest
abysses of depravity, as it is said in A. I, 22:
other thing than evil views do I know, o monks, whereby to such
an extent the unwholesome things not yet arisen arise, and the
unwholesome things already arisen are brought to growth and
fullness. No other thing than evil views do I know, whereby
to such an extent the wholesome things not yet arisen are hindered
in their arising, and the wholesome things already arisen disappear.
No other thing than evil views do I know, whereby to such an
extent human beings at the dissolution of the body, at death,
are passing to a way of suffering, into a world of woe, into
hell." Further in A. I, 23: "Whatever a man filled
with evil views performs or undertakes, or whatever he possesses
of will, aspiration, longing and tendencies, all these things
lead him to an undesirable, unpleasant and disagreeable state,
to woe and suffering."
the Abhidhamma (Dhs) it may be inferred that evil views, whenever
they arise, are associated with greed (s. Tab. I. 22, 23, 26,
speculative opinions and theories, which at all times have influenced
and still are influencing mankind, are quoted in the sutta-texts.
Amongst them, however, the wrong view which everywhere, and
at all times, has most misled and deluded mankind is the personality-belief,
the ego-illusion. This personality-belief (sakkáya-ditthi),
or ego-illusion (atta-ditthi), is of 2 kinds: eternity-belief
(sassata-ditthi) is the belief in the existence of a persisting
ego-entity, soul or personality, existing independently of those
physical and mental processes that constitute life and continuing
even after death.
(uccheda-ditthi), on the other hand, is the belief in the
existence of an ego-entity or personality as being more or less
identical with those physical and mental processes, and which
therefore, at the dissolution at death, will come to be annihilated.
- For the 20 kinds of personality-belief, see sakkáya-ditthi.
the Buddha neither teaches a personality which will continue
after death, nor does he teach a personality which will be annihilated
at death, but he shows us that 'personality', 'ego', 'individual',
'man', etc., are nothing but mere conventional designations
(vohára-vacana) and that in the ultimate sense (s. paramattha-sacca)
there is only this self-consuming process of physical and
mental phenomena which continually arise and again disappear
immediately. - For further details, s. anattá, khandha, paticcasamuppáda.
Perfect One is free from any theory (ditthigata), for
the Perfect One has seen what corporeality is, and how it arises
and passes away. He has seen what feeling ... perception ...
mental formations ... consciousness are, and how they arise
and pass away. Therefore I say that the Perfect One has won
complete deliverance through the extinction, fading away, disappearance,
rejection and casting out of all imaginings and conjectures,
of all inclination to the 'vain-glory of 'I' and 'mine."
rejection of speculative views and theories is a prominent feature
in a chapter of the Sutta-Nipáta, the Atthaka-Vagga.
so-called 'evil views with fixed destiny' (niyata-miccháditthi)
constituting the last of the 10 unwholesome courses of action
(kammapatha, q.v.), are the following three: (1) the fatalistic
'view of the uncausedness' of existence (ahetukaditthi),
(2) the view of the inefficacy of action' (akiriyaditthi),
(3) nihilism (natthikaditthi).
was taught by Makkhali-Gosála, a contemporary of the Buddha
who denied every cause for the corruptness and purity of beings,
and asserted that everything is minutely predestined by fate.
was taught by Púrana-Kassapa, another contemporary of the Buddha
who denied every karmical effect of good and bad actions: "To
him who kills, steals, robs, etc., nothing bad will happen.
For generosity, self-restraint and truthfulness, etc. no reward
is to be expected."
was taught by Ajita-Kesakambali, a third contemporary of the
Buddha who asserted that any belief in good action and its reward
is a mere delusion, that after death no further life would follow,
that man at death would become dissolved into the elements,
further details about these 3 views, s. D. 2, M. 60; commentarial
exposition in WHEEL 98/99, P. 23.
mentioned are also the 10 antinomies (antagáhiká micchá-ditthi):
'Finite is the world' or 'infinite is the world' ... 'body
and soul are identical' or 'body and soul are different' (e.g.
the Brahmájala Sutta .(D.1), 62 false views are classified and
described, comprising all conceivable wrong views and speculations
about man and world.
The All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmájala Sutta), tr. with
Com. by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS).
s. D. 15, 23, 24, 28; M. 11, 12, 25, 60, 63, 72, 76, 101,
102, 110; A. II, 16; X, 93; S. XXI, XXIV; Pts.M. Ditthikathá,.
views (ditthi) are one of the proclivities (s. anusaya),
cankers (s. ásava), clingings (s. upádána),
one of the three modes of perversions (s. vipallása). Unwholesome
consciousness (akusala citta), rooted in greed, may be
either with or without wrong views (ditthigata-sampayutta
or vippayutta); s. Dhs.; Tab I.
right view (sammá-ditthi), s. magga and M. 9 (Trans.
with Com. in 'R. Und.').
'morality based on wrong views'; s. nissaya.
the 'vision attainer', is one of the 7 Noble Persons
'perversion of views'; s. vipallása.
'purification of view' is the 3rd of the 7 stages of purification
(visuddhi III, q.v.).
'clinging to views', is one of the 4 kinds of clinging (upádána,
abode: s. vihára.
ear and eye: s. abhiññá.
messengers, the 3: deva-dúta (q.v.).
of the Buddha: s. dhamma, sásana.
articles, the 3: tittháyatana (q.v.).
lit. 'sad-mindedness', grief, i.e. mentally painful feeling
(cetasika-vedaná), is one of the 5 feelings (vedaná,
q.v.) and one of the 22 faculties (indriya, q.v.). According
to the Abhidhamma, grief is always associated with antipathy
and grudge, and therefore karmically unwholesome (akusala,
q.v.) Cf. Tab. I. 30, 31.
'indulging in grief'; s. manopavicára.
of deliverance, the 3: vimokkha-dvára; s. vimokkha
I; visuddhi VI, 8.
'hatred', anger, is one of the 3 unwholesome, roots (múla,
q.v.). - d. citta: hate consciousness; s.
Tab. I (30, 31).
'angry-or hate-natured'; s. carita.
skeptical: vicikicchá (q.v.), kankhá (q.v.).
moral: ottappa s. hiri-ottappa.
On the evil effects of drinking intoxicants, s. surámeraya,
'evil conduct', is threefold: in deeds, words and thoughts.
See kammapatha (I).
'woeful course' (of existence); s. gati.
(1) 'pain', painful feeling, which may be bodily and mental
'Suffering', 'ill'. As the first of the Four Noble Truths (s.
sacca) and the second of the three characteristics of
existence (s. ti-lakkhana), the term dukkha is
not limited to painful experience as under (1), but refers to
the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all
conditioned phenomena which, on account of their impermanence,
are all liable to suffering, and this includes also pleasurable
experience. Hence 'unsatisfactoriness' or 'liability to suffering'
would be more adequate renderings, if not for stylistic reasons.
Hence the first truth does not deny the existence of pleasurable
experience, as is sometimes wrongly assumed. This is illustrated
by the following texts:
satisfaction in the world, monks, I had pursued my way. That
satisfaction in the world I found. In so far as satisfaction
existed in the world, I have well perceived it by wisdom. Seeking
for misery in the world, monks, I had pursued my way. That misery
in the world I found. In so far as misery existed in the world,
I have well perceived it by wisdom. Seeking for the escape from
the world, monks, I had pursued my way. That escape from the
world I found. In so far as an escape from the world existed,
I have well perceived it by wisdom" (A. 111, 101).
there were no satisfaction to be found in the world, beings
would not be attached to the world .... If there were no misery
to be found in the world, beings would not be repelled by the
world .... If there were no escape from the world, beings could
not escape therefrom" (A. 111, 102).
dukkhatá. For texts on the Truth of Suffering, see W.
of B. and 'Path'.
The Three Basic Facts of Existence, II. Suffering (WHEEL
(abstr. noun fr. dukkha): 'the state of suffering',
painfulness, unpleasantness, the unsatisfactoriness of existence.
"There are three kinds of suffering: (1) suffering as pain
(dukkha-dukkhatá), (2) the suffering inherent in the
formations (sankhára-dukkhatá), (3) the suffering in
change (viparináma-dukkhatá)" (S. XLV, 165; D. 33).
is the bodily or mental feeling of pain as actual]y felt. (2)
refers to the oppressive nature of all formations of existence
(i.e. all conditioned phenomena), due to their continual arising
and passing away; this includes also experiences associated
with neutral feeling. (3) refers to bodily and mental pleasant
feelings, "because they are the cause for the arising of
pain when they change" (Vis.M. XIV, 34f).
'painful progress'; s. patipadá.
Suitable d. for monks; s. senásana. Satisfied
with whatever d.; s. dhutanga.