'habitual karma': s. karma.
'powers'. Among various groups of powers the following five
are most frequently met with in the texts: (1) faith (saddhá,
q.v.), (2) energy (viriya, q.v.), (3) mindfulness (sati,
q.v.), (4) concentration (samádhi, q.v.), (5) wisdom
particular aspect, distinguishing them from the corresponding
5 spiritual faculties (indriya, q.v.), is that they are
unshakable by their opposites: (1) the power of faith is unshakable
by faithlessness (unbelief); (2) energy, by laziness; (3) mindfulness,
by forgetfulness; (4) concentration, by distractedness; (5)
wisdom, by ignorance (see Pts.M., Ñána Kathá). They represent,
therefore, the aspect of firmness in the spiritual faculties.
to A.V. 15, the power (1) becomes manifest in the 4 qualities
of the Stream-winner (sotápannassa angáni, q.v.), (2)
in the 4 right efforts (s. padhána), (3) in the 4 foundations
of mindfulness (satipatthána, q.v.), (4) in the 4 absorptions
(jhána, q.v.), (5) in the (full comprehension of the)
4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.) .
S. XLVIII, 43; S. L. (Bala Samyutta).
A. VII, 3, the powers of moral shame (hiri, q.v.) and
moral dread (ottappa) are added to the aforementioned
five Several other groups of 2 (s. patisankhána-bala),
4, 5 and more powers are mentioned in the texts. - About the
10 powers of a Buddha, s. dasa-bala.
of mental faculties: indriya samatta (q.v.).
The 12 of the perceptual process: áyatana (q.v.).
deliverance through the perception of: cf. vimokkha
(II. 3) To hold for beautiful or pure (subha) what is
impure (asubha), is one of the 4 perversions (s. vipallása).
morality consisting in good: abhisamácárikasíla (q.v.)
living: satta (q.v.); further s. puggala.
- Belief in eternal personality: bhava-ditthi (s. ditthi),
The 9 worlds of: sattávása (q.v.).
blind: s. indriya-samatta.
'knowledge consisting in contemplation of dissolution' (of
all forms of existence), is one kind of insight: s. visuddhi
'becoming', 'process of existence', consists of 3 planes:
sensuous existence (káma-bhava), fine-material existence
(rúpa-bhava), immaterial existence (arúpa-bhava).
whole process of existence may be divided into two aspects:
Karma-process (kamma-bhava), i.e. the karmically active
side of existence, being the cause of rebirth and consisting
in wholesome and unwholesome volitional actions. See Karma,
Karma-produced rebirth, or regenerating process (uppattibhava),
i.e. the karmically passive side of existence consisting in
the arising and developing of the karma-produced and therefore
morally neutral mental and bodily phenomena of existence. Cf.
Tab. - (App.).
(feminine and masculine) 'nature', refers to the sexual
characteristics of the body, and belongs to the group of corporeality
(s. khandha). It is a commentarial term for the faculties
of femininity and masculinity (s. indriya 7, 8). (App.).
'belief in being' (eternal personality); s. sassataditthi,
'mental development' (lit. 'calling into existence, producing')
is what in English is generally but rather vaguely called 'meditation'.
One has to distinguish 2 kinds: development of tranquillity
(samatha-bhávaná), i.e. concentration (samádhi),
and development of insight (vipassaná-bhávaná), i.e.
two important terms, tranquillity and insight (s. samatha-vipassaná),
are very often met with and explained in the Sutta, as well
as in the Abhidhamma.
(samatha) is the concentrated, unshaken, peaceful, and
therefore undefiled state of mind, whilst insight (vipassaná)
is the intuitive insight into the impermanence, misery and impersonality
(anicca, dukkha, anattá; s. tilakkhana) of all
bodily and mental phenomena of existence, included in the 5
groups of existence, namely, corporeality, feeling, perception,
mental formations and consciousness; s. khandha.
or concentration of mind, according to Sankhepavannana (Commentary
to Abhidhammattha-sangaha), bestows a threefold blessing: favourable
rebirth, present happy life, and purity of mind which is the
condition of insight. Concentration (samádhi) is the
indispensable foundation and precondition of insight by purifying
the mind from the 5 mental defilements or hindrances (nívarana,
q.v.), whilst insight (vipassaná) produces the 4 supra
mundane stages of holiness and deliverance of mind. The Buddha
therefore says: "May you develop mental concentration,
o monks; for who is mentally concentrated, sees things according
to reality" (S. XXII, 5). And in Mil. it is said: "Just
as when a lighted lamp is brought into a dark chamber, the lamp-light
Will destroy the darkness and produce and spread the light,
just so will insight, once arisen, destroy the darkness of ignorance
and produce the light of knowledge."
III-XI gives full directions how to attain full concentration
and the absorptions (jhána, q.v.) by means of the following
40 meditation subjects (kammatthána):
kasina-exercises (s. kasina). These produce the 4 absorptions
loathsome subjects (asubha, q.v.). These produce the
recollections (anussati, q.v.): of the Buddha (buddhánussati),
the Doctrine (dhammánussati), the Brotherhood of the
Noble Ones (sanghánussati), morality, liberality, the
heavenly beings, death (maranasati, q.v. ), the body
(káyagatásati, q.v.), in-and-outbreathing (ánápána-sati,
q.v.) and peace (upasamánussati, q.v.). Among these,
the recollection (or mindfulness) of in-and-out breathing may
produce all the 4 absorptions, that of the body the 1st absorption,
the rest only neighbourhood-concentration (upacára-samádhi,
sublime abodes (brahma-vihára, q.v.): loving-kindness,
compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity (mettá, karuná, muditá,
upekkhá). Of these, the first 3 exercises may produce 3
absorptions, the last one the 4th absorption only.
immaterial spheres (arúpáyatana, s. jhána): of
unbounded space, unbounded consciousness, nothingness, neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
These are based upon the 4th absorption.
perception of the loathsomeness of food (áháre patikkúla-saññá),
which may produce neighbourhood-concentration
analysis of the 4 elements (catudhátu-vavatthána, s.
dhátu-vavatthána), which may produce neighbourhood-concentration.
development forms one of the 3 kinds of meritorious action (puñña-kiriya-vatthu,
q.v.). 'Delight in meditation' (bhávaná-rámatá) is one
of the noble usages (ariya-vamsa, q.v.) .
wisdom based on mental development'; s. paññá
'continuity of subconsciousness'; s. santána
and bhavanga-citta: The first term may tentatively
be rendered as the 'undercurrent forming the condition of being,
or existence', and the second as 'subconsciousness', though,
as will be evident from the following, it differs in several
respects from the usage of that term in Western psychology.
Bhavanga (bhava-anga), which, in the canonical
works, is mentioned twice or thrice in the Patthána, is explained
in the Abhidhamma commentaries as the foundation or condition
(kárana) of existence (bhava), as the sine
qua non of life, having the nature of a process, lit. a
flux or stream (sota). Herein, since time immemorial,
all impressions and experiences are, as it were, stored up,
or better said, are functioning, but concealed as such to- full
consciousness, from where however they occasionally emerge as
subconscious phenomena and approach the threshold of full consciousness,
or crossing it become fully conscious. This so-called 'subconscious
life-stream' or undercurrent of life is that by which might
be explained the faculty of memory, paranormal psychic phenomena,
mental and physical growth, karma and rebirth. etc. An alternative
rendering is 'life-continuum'.
should be noted that bhavanga-citta is a karma-resultant
state of consciousness (vipáka, q.v.), and that, in birth
as a human or in higher forms of existence, it is always the
result of good, or wholesome karma (kusala-kamma-vipáka),
though in varying degrees of strength (s. patisandhi,
end of the article). The same holds true for rebirth consciousness
(patisandhi) and death consciousness (cuti), which
are only particular manifestations of subconsciousness. In Vis.M.
XIV it is said:
soon as rebirth-consciousness (in the embryo at the time of
conception) has ceased, there arises a similar subconsciousness
with exactly the same object, following immediately upon rebirth-consciousness
and being the result of this or that karma (volitional action
done in a former birth and remembered there at the moment before
death). And again a further similar state of subconsciousness
arises. Now, as long as no other consciousness arises to interrupt
the continuity of the life-stream, so long the life-stream,
like the flow of a river, rises in the same way again and again,
even during dreamless sleep and at other times. In this way
one has to understand the continuous arising of those states
of consciousness in the life-stream." Cf. viññána-kicca.
For more details, s. Fund. 11. (App.).
'craving for (eternal) existence'; s. tanhá.
'canker of existence'; s. ásava.
'knowledge consisting in the awareness of terror', is one
of those kinds of insight-knowledge that form the 'purification
by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi,
A fully ordained disciple of the Buddha is called a bhikkhu.
"Mendicant monk" may be suggested as the closest equivalent
for "Bhikkhu", literally it means "he who begs"
but bhikkhus do not beg. They silently stand at the door for
alms. They live on what is spontaneously given by the supporters.
He is not a priest as he is no mediator between God and man.
He has no vows for life, but he is bound by his rules which
he takes of his own accord. He leads a life of voluntary poverty
and celibacy. If he is unable to live the Holy Life, he can
discard the robe at any time.
mattaññutá: 'knowing the measure in eating'.
o monks, the monk wisely reflecting partakes of his almsfood,
neither for pastime, nor for indulgence, nor to become beautiful
or handsome, but only to maintain and support this body, to
avoid harm and to assist the holy life, knowing: 'In this way
I shall dispel the former pain (of hunger, etc.) and no new
pain shall I let arise, and long life, blamelessness and ease
will be my share ' This, o monks, is knowing the measure in
eating." (A. III. 16). "How o monks, would it be possible
for Nanda to lead the absolutely pure life of holiness, if he
did not watch over his senses and did not know the measure in
eating?" (A. VII, 9).
process: upapatti-bhava: s. bhava. Further
s. patisandhi, játi.
(from verbal root budhi, to awaken, to understand):
awakenment, enlightenment, supreme knowledge. "(Through
Bodhi) one awakens from the slumber or stupor (inflicted upon
the mind) by the defilements (kilesa, q.v.) and comprehends
the Four Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.)" (Com. to M.
enlightenment of a Buddha is called sammá-sambodhi (q.v.)
'perfect enlightenment'. The faith (saddhá, q.v.) of
a lay follower of the Buddha is described as "he believes
in the enlightenment of the Perfect One" (saddahati
Tathágatassa bodhim: M. 53, A. III, 2).
components of the state of enlightenment and contributory factors
to its achievement, are mentioned in the texts: the 7 factors
of enlightenment (bojjhanga (q.v.)= bodhi-anga)
and the 37 'things pertaining to enlightenment' (bodhipakkhiya-dhammá,
q.v.). In one of the later books of the Sutta-Pitaka, the Buddhavamsa,
10 bodhipácana-dhammá are mentioned, i.e. qualities that
lead to the ripening of perfect enlightenment; these are the
10 perfections (páramí, q.v.).
is a threefold classification of enlightenment: 1. that of a
noble disciple (sávaka-bodhi, q.v.). i.e. of an Arahat,
2. of an Independently Enlightened One (pacceka-bodhi,
q.v.), and 3. of a Perfect Enlightened One (sammá-sambodhi).
This 3-fold division, however, is of later origin, and in this
form it neither occurs in the canonical texts nor in the older
Sutta commentaries. The closest approximation to it is found
in a verse sutta which is probably of a comparatively later
period, the Treasure Store Sutta (Nidhikkanda Sutta) of the
Khuddakapátha, where the following 3 terms are mentioned in
stanza 15: sávaka-páramí, pacceka-bodhi, buddha-bhúmi
(see Khp. Tr., pp. 247f.).
commentaries (e.g. to M., Buddhavamsa, Cariyapitaka) generally
give a 4-fold explanation of the word bodhi: 1. the tree of
enlightenment, 2. the holy path (ariya-magga), 3. Nibbána,
4 omniscience (of the Buddha: sabbaññutá-ñána). As to
(2), the commentaries quote Cula-Nidesa where bodhi is
defined as the knowledge relating to the 4 paths (of Stream-entry,
etc.; catúsu maggesu ñána).
in the canonical texts nor in the old commentaries is it stated
that a follower of the Buddha may choose between the three kinds
of enlightenment and aspire either to become a Buddha, a Pacceka-Buddha,
or an Arahat-disciple. This conception of a choice between three
aspirations is, however, frequently found in present-day Theraváda
countries, e.g. in Sri Lanka.
The 37 'things pertaining to enlightenment', or 'requisites
of enlightenment' comprise the entire doctrines of the Buddha.
4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána, q.v.),
4 right efforts (s. padhána),
4 roads to power (iddhi-páda, q.v.),
5 spiritual faculties (indriya; s. bala),
5 spiritual powers (bala, q.v.),
7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.),
Noble 8-fold Path (s. magga).
M. 77 all the 37 bodhipakkhiya-dhammá are enumerated
and explained though not called by that name. A detailed explanation
of them is given in Vis.M. XXII. In S.XLVII, 51, 67, only the
five spiritual faculties (indriya) are called bodhipakkhiya-dhammá;
and in the Jhána Vibhanga, only the 7 factors of enlightenment
The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL
'Enlightenment Being', is a being destined to Buddhahood,
a future Buddha. According to the traditional belief a Bodhisatta,
before reaching his last birth as a Buddha on this earth, is
living in the Tusita-heaven (s. deva), the heaven of
bliss. Cf. A. IV, 127; VIII, 70.
the Páli Canon and commentaries, the designation 'Bodhisatta'
is given only to Prince Siddhattha before his enlightenment
and to his former existences. The Buddha himself uses this term
when speaking of his life prior to enlightenment (e.g. M. 4,
M. 26). Bodhisattahood is neither mentioned nor recommended
as an ideal higher than or alternative to Arahatship; nor is
there any record in the Páli scriptures of a disciple declaring
it as his aspiration. - See bodhi.
action (wholesome or unwholesome); s. karma, karma formations
- Right b.a. = sammá-kammanta; s. magga.
postures, the 4: iriyá-patha (q.v.)
káya (q.v.) Contemplation on the b. is one
of the 4 satipatthána (q.v.).
'the 7 factors of enlightenment', are: mindfulness (sati-sambojjhanga;
s. sati), investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga),
energy (viriya-sambojjhanga; s. viriya, padhána),
rapture (píti-sambojjhanga, q.v.) tranquillity (passaddhi-sambojjhanga,
q.v.), concentration (samádhi-sambojjhanga, q.v.),
equanimity (upekkhá, q.v.). "Because they lead to
enlightenment, therefore they are called factors of enlightenment"
(S. XLVI, 5).
in the 2nd factor, dhamma-vicaya, the word dhamma
is taken by most translators to stand for the Buddhist doctrine,
it probably refers to the bodily and mental phenomena (náma-rúpa-dhammá)
as presented to the investigating mind by mindfulness, the 1st
factor. With that interpretation, the term may be rendered by
'investigation of phenomena'.
A.X. 102, the 7 factors are said to be the means of attaining
the threefold wisdom (s. tevijjá).
may be attained by means of the 4 foundations of mindfulness
(satipatthána, q.v.), as it is said in S. XLVI, 1 and
explained in M. 118:
"Whenever, o monks, the monk dwells contemplating the body
(káya), feeling (vedaná), mind (citta) and
mind-objects (dhammá), strenuous, clearly-conscious,
mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief, at such a time
his mindfulness is present and undisturbed; and whenever his
mindfulness is present and undisturbed, at such a time he has
gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment 'mindfulness'
(sati-sambojjhanga), and thus this factor of enlightenment
reaches fullest perfection.
"Whenever, while dwelling with mindfulness, he wisely investigates,
examines and thinks over the law ... at such a time he has gained
and is developing the factor of enlightenment 'investigation
of the law' (dhamma-vicaya°) ....
"Whenever, while wisely investigating his energy is firm
and unshaken ... at such a time he has gained and is developing
the factor of enlightenment 'energy' (viriya°) ....
"Whenever in him, while firm in energy, arises supersensuous
rapture ... at such a time he has gained and is developing the
factor of enlightenment 'rapture' (píti°) ..
"Whenever, while enraptured in mind, his body and his mind
become composed ... at such a time he has gained and is developing
the factor of enlightenment 'tranquillity' (passaddhi°).
"Whenever, while being composed in his body and happy,
his mind becomes concentrated ... at such a time he has gained
and is developing the factor of enlightenment 'concentration'
"Whenever he looks with complete indifference on his mind
thus concentrated ... at such a time he has gained and is developing
the factor of enlightenment 'equanimity' (upekkhá).
Bojjhanga Samyutta (S. XLVI); Bojjhanga Vibh. - For the
conditions leading to the arising of each of the factors,
see the Com. to Satipatthána Sutta (Way of Mindfulness,
by Soma Thera; 3rd ed., 1967, BPS). Further, The 'Seven
Factors of Enlightenment, by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 1.)
mental: cetaso vinibandha (q.v.).
the 4: yoga (q.v.).
liberated, s. ubhato-bhága-vimutta, ariyapuggala
consciousness (and b. space), Sphere of: s. jhána
'pure (chaste) or holy life', is a term for the life of
the monk. Also a lay-devotee who observes the 8 moral precepts
(sikkhápada, q.v.), takes as the third precept the vow
of chastity, i.e. full abstention from sexual relations. The
highest aim and purpose of b. is, according to M. 29,
the 'unshakable deliverance of mind' (akuppá ceto-vimutti).
The 'heavenly beings of the Brahma-world' inhabit the first
3 heavens of the fine-material world, (rúpaloka), corresponding
to the 1st absorption (jhána, q.v.). The highest ruler
of them is called the Great Brahma (Mahá-Brahmá). With
caustic humor he is said (D. 11) to pretend: "I am Brahma,
the Great Brahmá, the Most High, the Invincible One, the Omniscient
One, the Ruler, the Lord, the Creator, the Maker, the Perfect
One, the Preserver, the Controller, the Father of all that was
and will be." Cf. deva (II. 1-3).
'Brahma-world', in the widest sense, is a name for the fine-material
(rúpa-loka) and immaterial world (arúpa-loka); in
a narrower sense, however, only for the first three heavens
of the fine-material world. Cf. Brahma-káyika-deva.
the 4 'sublime' or 'divine abodes', also called the 4 boundless
states (appamaññá), are: loving-kindness (mettá),
compassion (karuná), altruistic (or sympathetic)
joy (muditá), equanimity (upekkhá).
stereotype text on the development of these 4 sublime abodes
(brahma-vihára-bhávaná; s. bhávaná), often met
with in the Suttas,- is as follows: "'There, o monks, the
monk with a mind full of loving-kindness pervading first one
direction, then a second one, then a third one, then the fourth
one, just so above, below and all around; and everywhere identifying
himself with all, he is pervading the whole world with mind
full of loving-kindness, with mind wide, developed, unbounded,
free from hate and ill-will." Hereafter follows the same
theme with compassion, altruistic joy, and equanimity.
Detailed explanation in Vis.M. IX. - For texts s. "Path",
97ff; texts on mettá in The Practice of Loving Kindness,
by Ñánamoli Thera (WHEEL 7). - The Four Sublime States, by Nyanaponika
Thera (WHEEL 6). - Brahma Vihára, by Narada Thera (Vajirarama,
mindfulness of in-and-out-breathing ánápánasati (q.v.)
'recollection of the Enlightened One'; s. anussati.