contemplation of: patinissaggánupassaná, is one of the
18 chief kinds of insight; s. vipassaná, further ánápánasati
'living in the open air', is one of the ascetic means to purification
(in morality and understanding): s. vipatti.
'incapable of progressing'. "Those beings who are obstructed
by their evil actions (kamma, s. karma), by their defilements
(kilesa, q.v.), by the result of their evil actions (s.
vipáka), or who are devoid of faith, energy and knowledge,
and unable to enter the right path and reach perfection in wholesome
things, all those are said to be incapable of progressing"
(Pug. 13). According to Commentary the 'evil actions' denote
the 5 heinous deeds with immediate result (ánantarika-kamma,
q.v.), whilst the 'defilements' refer to the 'evil views with
fixed destiny' (niyata-micchá-ditthi; s. ditthi).
The 'Radiant Ones', are a class of heavenly beings of the fine-material
world (rúpa-loka); cf. deva.
the 8 'stages of mastery', are powers to be obtained by
means of the kasina-exercises (s. kasina). In the Com.
to M. 77, where áyatana is explained by 'means' (kárana)
it is said: "The abhibháyatana through their counteracting
may master (suppress) the adverse states, and by means of higher
knowledge they may master the objects of mind." They are
means for transcending the sensuous sphere.
stereotype text often met with in the Suttas (e.g. D. 11, 33;
M. 77; A. VIII, 65; X, 29) is as follows:
"Perceiving (blue..., red..., yellow..., white) forms on
one's own body, one sees forms externally small ones, beautiful
or ugly; and in mastering these one understands: 'I know, I
understand.' This is the first stage of mastery.
"Perceiving forms on one's own body, one sees forms externally,
large ones .... This is the second stage of mastery.
"Not perceiving forms on one's own body, one sees forms
externally, small ones .... This is the third stage of mastery.
"Not perceiving forms on one's own body, one sees forms
externally, large ones .... This is the fourth stage of mastery.
"Not perceiving forms on one's own body, one sees forms
externally, blue forms, forms of blue color, blue appearance,
blue lustre, and mastering these one understands: 'I know, I
understand. This is the fifth stage of mastery."
The same is repeated with yellow, red and white forms.
preparatory kasina-object for the 1st and 2nd exercise one should
choose on one's own body a small or a large spot, beautiful
or ugly, and thereon one should concentrate one's full undivided
attention, so that this object after a while reappears as mental
reflex or image (nimitta, q.v.) and, as it were, as something
external. Such an exercise, though appearing quite mechanical,
if properly carried out will bring about a high degree of mental
concentration and entrance into the 4 absorptions (jhána,
q.v.). In the 3rd and 4th exercises the monk by an external
kasina-object gains the mental reflexes and absorptions. As
objects of the remaining exercises, perfectly clear and radiant
colors should be chosen, flowers, cloth, etc.
kasina-object of small size is said to be suitable for a mentally
unsteady nature, one of a large size for a dull nature, a beautiful
object for an angry nature, an ugly one for a lustful nature.
Vis.M. V it is said: "By means of the earth-kasina one
succeeds in reaching the stage of mastery with regard to small
and large objects .... By means of the blue-kasina one succeeds
in causing blue forms to appear, in producing darkness, in reaching
the stage of mastery with regard to beautiful and ugly colours,
in reaching 'deliverance through the beautiful', etc."
(cf. vimokkha II, 3). The same is also said with regard
to the other colour kasinas.
'covetousness' is a synonym of lobha (s. múla)
and tanhá (q.v.) and is the 8th link of the unwholesome
courses of action (s. kamma-patha, I).
a Sutta term for rebirth; s. punabbhava.
The 6 'higher powers', or supernormal knowledge's, consist of
5 mundane (lokiya, q.v.) powers attainable through the
utmost perfection in mental concentration (samádhi, q.v.)
and one supermundane (lokuttara, q.v.) power attainable
through penetrating insight (vipassaná, q.v.), i.e. extinction
of all cankers (ásavakkhaya; s. ásava), in other
words, realization of Arahatship or Holiness. They are: (1)
magical powers (iddhi-vidha), (2) divine ear (dibba-sota),
(3) penetration of the minds of others (ceto-pariya-ñána),
(4) remembrance of former existences (pubbe-nivásánussati),
(5) divine eye (dibba-cakkhu), (6) extinction of all
cankers (ásavakkhaya). The stereotype text met with in
all the 4 Sutta-collections (e.g. D. 34; M. 4, 6, 77; A. III,
99; V, 23; S. XV, 9 and Pug. 271, 239) is as follows:
"Now, O Bhikkhus, the monk enjoys the various magical powers
(iddhi-vidha), such as being one he becomes manifold,
and having become manifold he again becomes one. He appears
and disappears. Without being obstructed he passes through walls
and mountains, just as if through the air. In the earth he dives
and rises up again, just as if in the water. He walks on water
without sinking, just as if on the earth. Cross-legged he floats
through the air, just like a winged bird. With his hand he touches
the sun and moon, these so mighty ones, so powerful ones. Even
up to the Brahma-world he has mastery over his body.
"With the divine ear (dibba-sota) he hears sounds
both heavenly and human, far and near.
"He knows the minds of other beings (parassa ceto-pariya-ñána),
of other persons, by penetrating them with his own mind. He
knows the greedy mind as greedy and the not-greedy one as not
greedy; knows the hating mind as hating and the not-hating one
as not hating; knows the deluded mind as deluded and the not-deluded
one as not deluded; knows the shrunken mind and the distracted
one, the developed mind and the undeveloped one, the surpassable
mind and the unsurpassable one, the concentrated mind and the
unconcentrated one, the freed mind and the unfreed one.
"He remembers manifold former existences (pubbe-nivásánussati),
such as one birth, two, three, four and five births .... hundred
thousand births; remembers many formations and dissolutions
of worlds: 'There I was, such name I had .... and vanishing
from there I entered into existence somewhere else .... and
vanishing from there I again reappeared here.' Thus he remembers,
always together with the marks and peculiarities, many a former
''With the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu = yathá-kammúpaga-ñána
or cutúpapáta-ñána), the pure one, he sees beings vanishing
and reappearing, low and noble ones, beautiful and ugly ones,
sees how beings are reappearing according to their deeds (s.
karma): 'These beings, indeed, followed evil ways in bodily
actions, words and thoughts, insulted the noble ones, held evil
views, and according to their evil views they acted. At the
dissolution of their body, after death, they have appeared in
lower worlds, in painful states of existence, in the world of
suffering, in hell. Those other beings, however, are endowed
with good action .... have appeared in happy state of existence,
in a heavenly world.
"Through the extinction of all cankers (ásavakkhaya)
even in this very life he enters into the possession of deliverance
of mind, deliverance through wisdom, after having himself understood
and realized it.''
appear frequently under the name of the 'threefold (higher)
knowledge' (te-vijjá, q.v.). They are, however, not a
necessary condition for the attainment of sainthood (arahatta),
i.e. of the sixth abhiññá.
XI-XIII gives a detailed explanation of the 5 mundane higher
powers, together with the method of attaining them.
connection with the 4 kinds of progress (s. patipadá),
abhiññá means the 'comprehension' achieved on attainment
of the paths and fruitions.
'morality consisting in good behaviour', relates to the
external duties of a monk such as towards his superior, etc.
"abhisamácárika-síla is a name for those moral rules
other than the 8 ending with right livelihood (i.e. 4-fold right
speech, 3-fold right action and right livelihood, as in the
Eightfold Path) (Vis.M. I; s. sacca IV, 3-5). "Impossible
is it, o monks, that without having fulfilled the law of good
behaviour, a monk could fulfil the law of genuine pure conduct"
(A.V, 21). Cf. ádibrahmacariyakasíla.
'truth-realization', is the full and direct grasp of the
Four Noble Truths by the Stream-winner (Sotápanna; s.
ariya-puggala). In the Com. the term is represented by
'penetration' (pativedha, q.v.). Frequently occurring
as dhammábhisamaya, 'realization of the doctrine' Cf.
S. XIII (Abhisamaya Samyutta) and Pts.M. (Abhisamaya
identical with the 2nd link of the paticca-samuppáda
(q.v.), sankhára (q.v.; under I, 1) or karmaformations
to acquire insight: cf. ugghatitaññú, vipacitaññú neyya.
vihára (q.v.). The 4 Divine a.: brahma-vihára
(q.v.) The 9 a. of beings: sattávása (q.v.).
natthi-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, (q.v.).
the 3: virati (q.v.).
Moment of: s. javana.
(of Karma): áyúhana (q.v.).
habitual karma; s. karma.
lit. 'That which cannot or should not be thought, the unthinkable,
incomprehensible, impenetrable, that which transcends the limits
of thinking and over which therefore one should not ponder.
These 4 unthinkables are: the sphere of a Buddha (buddha-visaya),
of the meditative absorptions (jhána-visaya), of karma-result
(kamma-vipáka), and brooding over the world (loka-cintá),
especially over an absolute first beginning of it (s. A. IV,
o monks, do not brood over the world as to whether it is eternal
or temporal, limited or endless .... Such brooding, O monks,
is senseless, has nothing to do with genuine pure conduct (s.
ádibrahmacariyaka-síla), does not lead to aversion, detachment,
extinction, nor to peace, to full comprehension, enlightenment
and Nibbána, etc." (S.LVI, 41).
image (during concentration): s. nimitta, samádhi,
karma (q.v.) - Right bodily a.: sammá-kammanta;
s. sacca (IV.4)
(of body, mental factors and consciousness): kammaññatá
(q.v.); cf. khandha (corporeality) and Tab. II.
'training in higher mentality'; s. sikkhá.
'determination', decision, resolve: is one of the mental
concomitants (cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental
formations (sankhára-kkhandha). In M. 111, it is mentioned
together with other mental concomitants. See Tab. II, III.
'insight into things based on higher wisdom', is one of
the 18 chief kinds of insight (s. vipassaná).
'predominance-condition' is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
q.v.); if developed, it is considered as the fourfold road to
power (iddhi-páda. q.v.).
'training in higher morality': s. sikkhá.
as a doctrinal term, occurs chiefly in two meanings:
'Foundation': four 'foundations' of an Arahat's mentality, mentioned
and explained in M. 140: the foundation of wisdom (paññá),
of truthfulness (sacca) of liberality (cága) and
of peace (upasama). See also D. 33 and Com.
'Determination', resolution, in: adhitthána-iddhi, 'magical
power of determination' (s. iddhi); adhitthána-páramí,
'perfection of resolution' (s. páramí).
'morality of genuine pure conduct', consists in right speech,
right bodily action and right livelihood, forming the 3rd, 4th
and 5th links of the Eightfold Path (s. sacca, IV.3,
4, 5); cf. Vis.M. I. In A. II, 86 it is said:
regard to those moral states connected with and corresponding
to the genuine pure conduct, he is morally strong, morally firm
and trains himself in the moral rules taken upon himself. After
overcoming the 3 fetters (ego-belief. skeptic doubt and attachment
to mere rules and ritual; s. samyojana) he becomes one
who will be 'reborn seven times at the utmost' (s. Sotápanna)
and after only seven times more wandering through this round
of rebirths amongst men and heavenly beings, he will put an
end to suffering."
'knowledge consisting in contemplation of misery', is one
of the 8 kinds of insight (vipassaná) that form the 'purification
of the knowledge and vision of the path-progress (s. visuddhi,
VI. 4). It is further one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (s.
'hatelessness, is one of the 3 wholesome roots (múla,
vedaná: 'feeling which is neither painful nor joyful', i.e.
indifferent feeling; s. khandha, vedaná.
(of mind to the object): ávajjana, is one of the
functions of consciousness (viññána-kicca, q.v.). Cf.
the 4 'wrong paths' are: the path of greed (chanda),
of hate, of delusion, of cowardice (bhaya). "One
who is freed from evil impulses is no longer liable to take
the wrong path of greed, etc.'' (A. IV, 17; IX, 7).
Old: jará (q.v.).
'nutriment', 'food', is used in the concrete sense as material
food and as such it belongs to derived corporeality (s. khandha,
Summary I.) In the figurative sense, as 'foundation' or condition,
it is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) and is
used to denote 4 kinds of nutriment, which are material and
mental: 1. material food (kabalinkáráhára), 2. (sensorial
and mental) impression (phassa), 3. mental volition (mano-sañcetaná),
4. consciousness (viññána).
Material food feeds the eightfold corporeality having nutrient
essence as its 8th factor (i.e. the solid, liquid, heat, motion,
color, odour, the tastable and nutrient essence; s. rúpa-kalápa).
2. Sensorial and mental impression is a condition for the 3
kinds of feeling (agreeable, disagreeable and indifferent);
s. paticcasamuppáda (6). 3. Mental volition (= karma,
q.v.) feeds rebirth; s. paticca-samuppáda (2). 4. Consciousness
feeds mind and corporeality ;náma-rúpa; ib., 2) at the
moment of conception" (Vis.M. XI).
(on the 4 Nutriments): M. 9 & Com. (tr. in 'R. Und.'),
M 38; S. XII, 11, 63, 64 - The Four Nutriments of Life,
Selected texts & Com. (WHEEL 105/106).
(or-samutthána) - rúpa: 'Food-produced corporeality';
patikkúla-saññá: 'reflection on the loathsomeness of food',
fully described in Vis.M. XI, l.
'view of uncausedness' (of existence); s. ditthi.
'lack of moral shame and dread', are two of the 4 unwholesome
factors associated with all karmically unwholesome states of
consciousness, the two others being restlessness (uddhacca)
and delusion (moha). Cf. Tab. II.
are two sinister things, namely, lack of moral shame and dread,
etc." (A. II, 6). "Not to be ashamed of what one should
be ashamed of; not to be ashamed of evil, unwholesome things:
this is called lack of moral shame" (Pug. 59). "Not
to dread what one should dread ... this is called lack of moral
dread (Pug. 60).
'ineffective karma'; s. karma.
'livelihood'. About right and wrong livelihood., s. sacca
(IV. 5) and micchá-magga (5).
'morality consisting in purification of livelihood', is one
of the 4 kinds of perfect morality; s. síla.
the 'Great Ones', i.e. 'Highest Gods', are the inhabitants
of the 5th and highest heaven of the Pure Abodes (suddhávása,
q.v.); cf. avacara, deva (II) Anágámí.
'space', is, according to Com., of two kinds: 1. limited
space (paricchinnákása or paricchedákása), 2.
endless space (anantákása), i.e. cosmic space.
Limited space, under the name of ákása-dhátu (space element),
belongs to derived corporeality (s. khandha, Summary
I; Dhs 638) and to a sixfold classification of elements (s.
dhátu; M 112, 115, 140). It is also an object of kasina
(q.v.) meditation. It is defined as follows: "The space
element has the characteristic of delimiting matter. Its function
is to indicate the boundaries of matter. It is manifested as
the confines of matter; or its manifestation consists in being
untouched (by the 4 great elements), and in holes and apertures.
Its proximate cause is the matter delimited. It is on account
of the space element that one can say of material things delimited
that 'this is above. below, around that' " (Vis.M. XIV,
Endless space is called in Atthasálini ajatákása, 'unentangled',
i.e. unobstructed or empty space. It is the object of the first
immaterial absorption (s. jhána), the sphere of boundless
space (ákásánañcáyatana). According to Abhidhamma philosophy,
endless space has no objective reality (being purely conceptual),
which is indicated by the fact that it is not included in the
triad of the wholesome (kusalatika), which comprises
the entire reality. Later Buddhist schools have regarded it
as one of several unconditioned or uncreated states (asankhata
dharma) - a view that is rejected in Kath. (s. Guide. p.
70). Theraváda Buddhism recognizes only Nibbána as an unconditioned
element (asankhata-dhátu: s. Dhs. 1084).
dhátu: 'space element'; see above and dhátu.
'space-kasina exercise'; s. kasina.
'sphere of boundless space', is identical with the 1st absorption
in the immaterial sphere; s. jhána (6).
s. jhána (7).
view of the inefficacy of action'; s. ditthi.
'unshakable', is one who has attained full mastery over
the absorptions (jhána, q.v.). In Pug. 4 it is said:
person is unshakable? If a person gains the meditative attainments
of the fine-material and immaterial sphere (rúpávacara-arúpávacara);
and he gains them at his wish, without toil and exertion; and
according to his wish, as regards place, object and duration,
enters them or arises from them, then it is impossible that
in such a person the attainments may become shaken through negligence.
This person is unshakable."
'unwholesome', are all those karmic volitions (kamma-cetaná;
s. cetaná) and the consciousness and mental concomitants
associated therewith, which are accompanied either by greed
(lobha) or hate (dosa) or merely delusion (moha);
and all these phenomena are causes of unfavourable karma-results
and contain the seeds of unhappy destiny or rebirth. Cf. karma,
paticca-samuppáda (1), Tab. II.
'general unwholesome mental factors associated with all
unwholesome actions' (volitions), are four: (1) lack of moral
shame (ahirika), (2) lack of moral dread (anottappa),
(3) restlessness (uddhacca), (4) delusion (moha).
For (1) and (2) s. ahirika-anottappa, for (3) s. nívarana,
for (4) múla. (App.).
corresponding term in the field of wholesome consciousness is
sobhana- sádhárana-cetasika (s. sobhana).
'unwholesome thoughts' as defined under akusala (q.v.).
In M. 20, five methods of overcoming them are given: by changing
the object, thinking of the evil results, paying no attention,
in The Removal of Distracting Thoughts (WHEEL 21).
prohibition: s. surámeraya-majja-ppamádattháná etc.
vow of going for; or to do so without omitting any house:
s. dhutanga, 3, 4.
eater, the practice of the: s. dhutanga.
the practice of the; s. dhutanga.
'greedlessness', is one of the 3 karmically wholesome roots
'light-kasina-exercise'; s. kasina.
'perception of light'. The recurring canonical passage reads:
"Here the monk contemplates the perception of light. He
fixes his-mind to the perception of the day; as at day-time
so at night, and as at night, so in the day. In this way, with
a mind clear and unclouded, he develops a stage of mind that
is full of brightness." It is one of the methods of overcoming
drowsiness, recommended by the Buddha to Mahá-Moggallána (A.
VII, 58). According to D. 33, it is conducive to the development
of 'knowledge and vision' (s. visuddhi), and it is said
to be helpful to the attainment of the 'divine eye' (s. abhiññá).
joy: muditá, is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahmavihára,
(Sanskrit amrta; Ö mr
to die; = Gr. ambrosia): 'Deathlessness' according to
popular belief also the gods' drink conferring immortality,
is a name for Nibbána (s. Nibbána), the final liberation
from the wheel of rebirths, and therefore also from the ever-repeated
'non-delusion', wisdom, is one of the 3 karmically wholesome
roots (múla, q.v.).
'freedom from covetousness', unselfishness; s. kammapatha
s. sabba-loke anabhirati-s.
the 'Non-Returner', is a noble disciple (ariya-puggala,
q.v.) on the 3rd stage of holiness. There are 5 classes of Non-Returners,
as it is said (e.g. Pug. 42-46):
being, through the disappearing of the 5 lower fetters (samyojana,
q.v.), reappears in a higher world (amongst the devas of the
Pure Abodes, suddhávása, q.v.), and without returning
from that world (into the sensuous sphere) he there reaches
"He may, immediately after appearing there (in the Pure
Abodes) or without having gone beyond half of the life-time,
attain the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters.
Such a being is called 'one who reaches Nibbána within the first
half of the life' (antará-parinibbáyí).
"Or, whilst living beyond half of the lifetime, or at the
moment of death, he attains the holy path for the overcoming
of the higher fetters. Such a being is called 'one who reaches
Nibbána after crossing half the life-time' (upahacca-parinibbáyí).
"Or, with exertion he attains the holy path for the overcoming
of the higher fetters. Such a being is called 'one who reaches
Nibbána with exertion' (sasankhára-parinibbáyí).
"Or, without exertion he attains the holy path for the
overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called 'one
who reaches Nibbána without exertion' (asankhára-parinibbáyí).
"Or, after vanishing from the heaven of the Aviha-gods
(s. suddhávása), he appears in the heaven of the unworried
(atappa) gods. After vanishing from there he appears
in the heaven of the clearly-visible (sudassa) gods,
from there in the heaven of the clear-visioned (sudassí)
gods, from there in the heaven of the highest (akanittha)
gods. There he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the
higher fetters. Such a being is called 'one who passes up-stream
to the highest gods' (uddhamsota-akanittha-gámí)."
of the 4 elements: dhátu-vavatthána (q.v.).
doctrine: vibhajja-váda (q.v.).
knowledge, the 4 kinds of: patisambhidá (q.v.).
is one of the 3 supermundane senses or faculties; s. indriya
'proximity', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
the 5 heinous 'actions with immediate destiny' are: parricide,
matricide, killing an Arahat (Saint), wounding a Buddha, creating
schism in the monks' Order. In A.V., 129 it is said:
are 5 irascible and incurable men destined to the lower world
and to hell, namely: the parricide," etc. About the 5th
see A. X., 35, 38. With regard to the first crime, it is said
in D. 2 that if King Ajátasattu had not deprived his father
of life, he would have reached entrance into the path of Stream-entry
the 'Immediacy', is a name for that concentration of mind
which is associated with such insight (vipassaná, q.v.)
as is present in any one of the 4 kinds of supermundane path
consciousness (s. ariya-puggala), and which therefore
is the cause of the immediately following consciousness as its
result or 'fruition' (phala, q.v.). According to the
Abhidhamma, the path (of the Sotápanna, etc.) is generated
by the insight into the impermanence, misery and impersonality
of existence, flashing up at that very moment and transforming
and ennobling one's nature forever.
is mentioned under the name of ánantarika-samádhi in
the Ratana Sutta (Sn. v. 22) and in Pts.M. 1, Ñánakathá.
'mindfulness on in-and-out-breathing', is one of the most
important exercises for reaching mental concentration and the
4 absorptions (jhána, q.v.).
the Satipatthána Sutta (M. 10, D. 22) and elsewhere, 4 methods
of practice are given, which may also serve as basis for insight
meditation. The 'Discourse on Mindfulness of Breathing' (Ánápánasati
Sutta, M. 118) and other texts have 16 methods of practice,
which divide into 4 groups of four. The first three apply to
both tranquillity (samatha, q.v.) and insight-meditation,
while the fourth refers to pure insight practice only. The second
and the third group require the attainment of the absorptions.
attentive mind he breathes in, with attentive mind he breathes
(1) "When making a long inhalation he knows: 'I make
a long inhalation'; when making a long exhalation he knows:
'I make a long exhalation.'
"When making a short inhalation he knows: 'I make a short
inhalation'; when making a short exhalation he knows: 'I make
a short exhalation.'
" 'Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body I will
breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'clearly perceiving
the entire (breath-) body I will breathe out,' thus he trains
" 'Calming this bodily function I will breathe in,'
thus he trains himself; 'calming this bodily function I
will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
(5) " 'Feeling rapture (píti) I will breathe in,'
thus he trains himself; 'feeling rapture I will breathe out,'
thus he trains himself.
" 'Feeling joy I will breathe in,' thus he trains himself;
'feeling joy I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
" 'Feeling the mental formation (citta-sankhára)
I will breathe in,' thus he trains himself, 'feeling the
mental formation I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
" 'Calming the mental formation I will breathe in,'
thus he trains himself; 'calming the mental formation I
will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
(9) " 'Clearly perceiving the mind (citta) I will
breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'clearly perceiving the
mind I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
" 'Gladdening the mind I will breathe in,' thus he
trains himself; 'gladdening the mind I will breathe out,'
thus he trains himself.
" 'Concentrating the mind I will breathe in, thus he
trains himself; 'concentrating the mind I will breathe out',
thus he trains himself.
" 'Freeing the mind I will breathe in,' thus he trains
himself; 'freeing the mind I will breathe out,' thus he
(13) " 'Reflecting on impermanence (anicca) I
will breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on impermanence
I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
" 'Reflecting on detachment (virága) I will breathe
in,' thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on detachment I
will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
" 'Reflecting on extinction (nirodha) I will
breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on extinction
I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself.
" 'Reflecting on abandonment (patinissagga)
I will breathe in, thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on
abandonment I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself."
M 118 it is further shown how these 16 exercises bring about
the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána, q.v.),
namely: 1-4 contemplation of the body, 5-8 contemplation of
feeling, 9-12 contemplation of mind (consciousness), 13-16 contemplation
of mind-objects. Then it is shown how these 4 foundations of
mindfulness bring about the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga,
q.v.); then these again deliverance of mind (ceto-vimutti,
q.v.) and deliverance through wisdom (paññá-vimutti,
Ánápánasati Samyutta (S. LIV). - Pts.M. Ánápánakathá
- Full explanation of practice in Vis.M. VIII, 145ff. -
For a comprehensive anthology of canonical and commentarial
texts, see Mindfulness of Breathing, Ñánamoli Thera
(Kandy: BPS, 1964).
'not-self', non-ego, egolessness, impersonality, is the
last of the three characteristics of existence (ti-lakkhana,
q.v.) The anattá doctrine teaches that neither within
the bodily and mental phenomena of existence, nor outside of
them, can be found anything that in the ultimate sense could
be regarded as a self-existing real ego-entity, soul or any
other abiding substance. This is the central doctrine of Buddhism,
without understanding which a real knowledge of Buddhism is
altogether impossible. It is the only really specific Buddhist
doctrine, with which the entire Structure of the Buddhist teaching
stands or falls. All the remaining Buddhist doctrines may, more
or less, be found in other philosophic systems and religions,
but the anattá-doctrine has been clearly and unreservedly
taught only by the Buddha, wherefore the Buddha is known as
the anattá-vádi, or 'Teacher of Impersonality'. Whosoever
has not penetrated this impersonality of all existence, and
does not comprehend that in reality there exists only this continually
self-consuming process of arising and passing bodily and mental
phenomena, and that there is no separate ego-entity within or
without this process, he will not be able to understand Buddhism,
i.e. the teaching of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.),
in the right light. He will think that it is his ego, his personality,
that experiences suffering, his personality that performs good
and evil actions and will be reborn according to these actions,
his personality that will enter into Nibbána, his personality
that walks on the Eightfold Path. Thus it is said in Vis.M.
suffering exists, no sufferer is found;
deeds are, but no doer of the deeds is there;
is, but not the man that enters it;
path is, but no traveler on it is seen."
is not clear with regard to the conditionally arisen phenomena,
and does not comprehend that all the actions are conditioned
through ignorance, etc., he thinks that it is an ego that understands
or does not understand, that acts or causes to act, that comes
to existence at rebirth .... that has the sense-impression,
that feels, desires, becomes attached, continues and at rebirth
again enters a new existence" (Vis.M. XVII, 117).
in the case of the first two characteristics it is stated that
all formations (sabbe sankhárá) are impermanent and subject
to suffering, the corresponding text for the third characteristic
states that "all things are not-self" (sabbe dhammá
anattá; M. 35, Dhp. 279). This is for emphasizing that the
false view of an abiding self or substance is neither applicable
to any 'formation' or conditioned phenomenon, nor to Nibbána,
the Unconditioned Element (asankhatá dhátu).
Anattá-lakkhana Sutta, the 'Discourse on the Characteristic
of Not-self', was the second discourse after Enlightenment,
preached by the Buddha to his first five disciples, who after
hearing it attained to perfect Holiness (arahatta).
contemplation of not-self (anattánupassaná) leads to
the emptiness liberation (suññatá-vimokkha, s. vimokkha).
Herein the faculty of wisdom (paññindriya) is outstanding,
and one who attains in that way the path of Stream-entry is
called a Dhamma-devotee (dhammánusári; s. ariya-puggala);
at the next two stages of sainthood he becomes a vision-attainer
(ditthippatta); and at the highest stage, i.e. Holiness,
he is called 'liberated by wisdom' (paññá-vimutta).
further details, see paramattha-sacca, paticca-samuppáda,
khandha, ti-lakkhana, náma-rúpa, patisandhi.
Anattá-lakkhana Sutta, Vinaya I, 13-14; S. XXII, 59; tr.
in Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (WHEEL 17). -
Another important text on Anattá is the Discourse on the
Snake Simile (Alagaddúpama Sutta, M. 22; tr. in WHEEL 48/49)
. Other texts in "Path". - Further: Anattá and
Nibbána, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 11); The Truth of Anattá,
by Dr. G. P. Malalasekera (WHEEL 94); The Three Basic Facts
of Existence III: Egolessness (WHEEL 202/204)
'contemplation of not-self' is one of the 18 chief kinds
of insight (s. vipassaná). See also above.
'perception of not-self'; see A. VI, 104; A. VII, 48; A.X,
60; Ud. IV, 1.
the 'doctrine of impersonality'; s. anattá.
'imperturbability', denotes the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara;
s. avacara); s. sankhára. cf. M. 106.
'impermanent' (or, as abstract noun, aniccatá, 'impermanence')
is the first of the three characteristics of existence (tilakkhana,
q.v.). It is from the fact of impermanence that, in most texts,
the other two characteristics, suffering (dukkha) and
not-self (anattá), are derived (S. XXII, 15; Ud. IV,
of things is the rising, passing and changing of things, or
the disappearance of things that have become or arisen. The
meaning is that these things never persist in the same way,
but that they are vanishing dissolving from moment to moment"
(Vis.M. VII, 3).
is a basic feature of all conditioned phenomena, be they material
or mental, coarse or subtle, one's own or external: All formations
are impermanent" (sabbe sankhárá aniccá; M 35, Dhp.
277). That the totality of existence is impermanent is also
often stated in terms of the five aggregates (khandha,
q.v.), the twelve personal and external sense bases (áyatana
q.v.), etc. Only Nibbána (q.v.), which is unconditioned and
not a formation (asankhata), is permanent (nicca,
insight leading to the first stage of deliverance, Stream-entry
(sotápatti; s. ariya-puggala), is often expressed
in terms of impermanence: "Whatever is subject to origination,
is subject to cessation" (s. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta,
S. XLVI, 11). In his last exhortation, before his Parinibbána,
the Buddha reminded his monks of the impermanence of existence
as a spur to earnest effort: "Behold now, Bhikkhus, I exhort
you: Formations are bound to vanish. Strive earnestly!"
(vayadhammá sankhárá, appamádena sampádetha; D. 16).
the deep insight into the impermanence and insubstantiality
of all phenomena of existence there is no attainment of deliverance.
Hence comprehension of impermanence gained by direct meditative
experience heads two lists of insight knowledge: (a) contemplation
of impermanence (aniccánupassaná) is the first of the
18 chief kinds of insight (q.v.); (b) the contemplation of arising
and vanishing (udayabbayánupassaná-ñána) is the first
of 9 kinds of knowledge which lead to the 'purification by knowledge
and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi, VI). -
Contemplation of impermanence leads to the conditionless deliverance
(animitta-vimokkha; s. vimokkha). As herein the
faculty of confidence (saddhindriya) is outstanding,
he who attains in that way the path of Stream-entry is called
a faith-devotee (saddhánusárí; s. ariya-puggala)
and at the seven higher stages he is called faith-liberated
(saddhá-vimutta), - See also anicca-saññá.
The Three Basic Facts of Existence I: Impermanence (WHEEL
'contemplation of impermanence', is one of the 18 chief
kinds of insight (s. vipassaná).
'perception of impermanence', is defined in the Girimananda
Sutta (A.X. 60) as meditation on the impermanence of the five
groups of existence.
with a faithful heart, one takes refuge in the Buddha, his Teaching
and the Community of Monks; or with a faithful heart observes
the rules of morality, or develops a mind full of loving-kindness,
far more meritorious it is if one cultivates the perception
of impermanence, be it only for a moment" (A.X. 20).
A. VI, 102; A. VII, 48; Ud. IV, 1; S. XXII, 102.
'other', being of the opposite category.
'highest knowledge', gnosis, refers to the perfect knowledge
of the Saint (Arahat; s. ariya-puggala). The following
passage occurs frequently in the Suttas, when a monk indicates
his attainment of Holiness (arahatta): "He makes
known highest knowledge (aññam vyákaroti), thus: 'Rebirth
has ceased, fulfilled is the holy life, the task is accomplished,
and there is no more of this to come.' "
'faculty of highest knowledge' (aññ' indriya = aññá-indriya;
s. indriya), however, is present in six of the eight
stages of holiness, that is, beginning with the fruition of
Stream-Winning (sotápatti-phala) up to the path of Holiness
(arahatta-magga). See Dhs. (PTS) 362-364, 505, 553; Indriya
Vibhanga; "Path" 162.
'mutuality-condition,' is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
'the faculty of one who knows'; s. indriya, 22.
'the faculty of highest knowledge'; s. aññá and indriya,
questions: 4 ways of: s. pañhá-byákarana.
is one of the 5 kinds of Non-Returners or Anágámí
'adaptation-moment of consciousness', denotes the third
of the 4 moments of impulsion (javana, q.v.) flashing
up immediately before either reaching the absorptions (jhána,
q.v.) or the supermundane paths (s. ariya-puggala). These
4 moments of impulsion are: the preparation (parikamma),
access (upacára), adaptation (anuloma) and maturity
(gotrabhú) moments. For further details, s. javana,
'adaptation-knowledge' or conformity-knowledge, is identical
with the 'adaptation-to-truth knowledge', the last of 9 insight-knowledges
(vipassaná-ñána) which constitute the purification of
knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi
VI, 9). Cf. Vis.M. XXI.
see Nibbána, upádi.
'contemplation' - 4 fold: s. satipatthána - 18 fold:
s. vipassaná. - 7 fold: "The seven contemplation's:
(1) Contemplating (formations) as impermanent, one abandons
the perception of permanence. (2) Contemplating (them) as painful,
one abandons the perception of happiness (to be found in them).
(3) Contemplating (them) as not self, one abandons the perception
of self. (4) Becoming dispassionate, one abandons delighting.
(5) Causing fading away, one abandons greed. (6) Causing cessation,
one abandons originating. (7) Relinquishing, one abandons grasping"
(Pts.M. I, p. 58). - See also Vis.M. XXI, 43; XXII, 114.
The 9 'successive extinctions', are the 8 extinctions reached
through the 8 absorptions (jhána, q.v.) and the extinction
of feeling and perception' (s. nirodha-samápatti), as
it is said in A. IX, 31 and D. 33:
him who has entered the 1st absorption, the sensuous perceptions
(káma-saññá) are extinguished. Having entered the 2nd
absorption, thought-conception and discursive thinking (vitakkavicára,
q.v.) are extinguished. Having entered the 3rd absorption, rapture
(píti, q.v.) is extinguished. Having entered the 4th
absorption, in-and-out breathing (assása-passása, q.v.)
are extinguished. Having entered the sphere of boundless space
(ákásánañcáyatana), the corporeality perceptions (rúpa-saññá)
are extinguished. Having entered the sphere of boundless consciousness
(viññánañcáyatana), the perception of the sphere of boundless
space is extinguished. Having entered the sphere of nothingness
(ákiñcaññáyatana), the perception of the sphere of boundless
consciousness is extinguished. Having entered the sphere of
the perception of the sphere of nothingness is extinguished.
Having entered the extinction of perception and feeling (saññávedayitanirodha)
perception and feeling are extinguished." For further details,
s. jhána, nirodha-samápatti.
the 9 'successive abodes', are identical with the 9 anupubba-nirodha
(s. above). In A. IX, 33 they are called successive attainments
'gradual instruction', progressive sermon; given by the
Buddha when it was necessary to prepare first the listener's
mind before speaking to him on the advanced teaching of the
Four Noble Truths. The stock passage (e.g. D. 3; D 14; M. 56)
runs as follows:
the Blessed One gave him a gradual instruction - that is to
say, he spoke on liberality ('giving', dána, q.v.), on
moral conduct (síla) and on the heaven (sagga);
he explained the peril, the vanity and the depravity of sensual
pleasures, and the advantage
renunciation. When the Blessed One perceived that the listener's
mind was prepared, pliant, free from obstacles, elevated and
lucid; then he explained to him that exalted teaching particular
to the Buddhas (buddhánam sámukkamsiká desaná), that
is: suffering, its cause, its ceasing, and the path."
the 'effort to maintain' wholesome states; s. padhána.
the 7 'proclivities', inclinations, or tendencies are: sensuous
greed (káma-rága, s. samyojana), grudge (patigha),
speculative opinion (ditthi, q.v.), skeptical doubt (vicikicchá,
q.v.), conceit (mána, q.v.), craving for continued existence
(bhavarága), ignorance (avijjá, q.v.) (D. 33;
A. VII, 11, 12).
things are called 'proclivities' since, in consequence of their
pertinacity, they ever and again tend to become the conditions
for the arising of ever new sensuous greed, etc.'' (Vis.M. XXII,
VII, first determines in which beings such and such proclivities
exist, and which proclivities, and with regard to what, and
in which sphere of existence. Thereafter it gives an explanation
concerning their overcoming, their penetration, etc. Cf. Guide
VI (vii). According to Kath. several ancient Buddhist schools
erroneously held the opinion that the anusayas, as such,
meant merely latent, hence karmically neutral qualities, which
however Contradicts the Theraváda conception. Cf. Guide V, 88,
'recollection', meditation, contemplation. The six recollections
often described in the Suttas (e.g. A. VI, 10, 25; D. 33) are:
(1) recollection of the Buddha, (2) his Doctrine, (3) his Community
of noble disciples, (4) of morality, (5) liberality, (6) heavenly
beings (buddhánussati, dhammánussati, sanghánussati, sílánussati,
"The noble disciple, Mahánáma, recollects thus: 'This Blessed
One is holy, a fully Enlightened One, perfected in wisdom and
conduct, faring happily, knower of the worlds, unsurpassed leader
of men to be trained, teacher of heavenly beings and men, a
Buddha, a Blessed One.'
'Well proclaimed by the Blessed One is the Doctrine (dhamma),
directly visible, with immediate fruit, inviting investigation,
leading on to Nibbána, to be comprehended by the wise, each
'Of good conduct is the Community (Sangha) of the Blessed
One's disciples, of upright conduct, living on the right path,
performing their duties, to wit: the 4 pairs of men or 8 individuals
(s. ariya puggala). This Community of the Blessed One's
disciples is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy
of gifts, worthy of reverence with raised hands, the unsurpassed
field for doing meritorious deeds.'
"The noble disciple further recollects his own morality
(síla) which is unbroken, without any breach, undefiled, untarnished,
conducive to liberation, praised by the wise, not dependent
(on craving or opinions), leading to concentration.
"The noble disciple further recollects his own liberality
(cága) thus: 'Blessed truly am I, highly blessed am I
who, amongst beings defiled with the filth of stinginess, live
with heart free from stinginess, liberal, open-handed, rejoicing
in giving, ready to give anything asked for, glad to give and
share with others.'
"The noble disciple further recollects the heavenly beings
(devatá): 'There are the heavenly beings of the retinue
of the Four Great Kings, the heavenly beings of the World of
the Thirty-Three, the Yámadevas ... and there are heavenly beings
besides (s. deva). Such faith, such morality, such knowledge,
such liberality, such insight, possessed of which those heavenly
beings, after vanishing from here, are reborn in those worlds,
such things are also found in me.' " (A. III,70; VI,10;
the time when the noble disciple recollects the Perfect One
... at such a time his mind is neither possessed of greed, nor
of hate, nor of delusion. Quite upright at such a time is his
mind owing to the Perfect One ... With upright mind the noble
disciple attains understanding of the sense, understanding of
the law, attains joy through the law. In the joyous one rapture
arises. With heart enraptured, his whole being becomes stilled.
Stilled within his being, he feels happiness; and the mind of
the happy one becomes firm. Of this noble disciple it is said
that amongst those gone astray, he walks on the right path,
among those suffering he abides free from suffering. Thus having
reached the stream of the law, he develops the recollection
of the Enlightened One...." (A. VI, 10).
A. I, 21 (PTS: I, xvi) and A. I, 27 (PTS: xx. 2) another 4 recollections
are added: mindfulness on death (marana-sati, q.v.),
on the body (káyagatá-.sati, q.v.), on breathing (ánápána-sati,
q.v.), and the recollection of peace (upasamánussati,
first six recollections are fully explained in Vis.M. VII, the
latter four in Vis.M. VIII.
'karma bearing fruits in later births'; s. karma.
'incapable of relapse', or 'of falling away', namely, with
regard to deliverance from some or all fetters of existence
(s. samyojana). Thus all noble disciples are called,
i.e. all those who have attained any of the 4 noble paths to
holiness (s. ariyapuggala). With regard to the absorptions
(jhána, q.v.), anyone is called 'unrelapsable' who has
attained full mastery over the absorptions. See A. VI, 62; Pug.
6. Cf. akuppa-dhamma.
'conditions of welfare' (lit. of non-decline), for a nation.
Seven such conditions are mentioned in the Mahá-Parinibbána
Sutta (D. 16). They are followed by five sets of 7, and one
set of 6 conditions, conducive to the welfare of the Community
of Monks, the Sangha. Identical texts at A. VII, 20-25. To be
distinguished from the preceding term.
The 4 'lower worlds'. are: the animal world, ghost world,
demon-world, hell. See Vis.M. XIII, 92f.
'water-element'; s. dhátu.
'zeal', non-laxity, earnestness, diligence, is considered
as the foundation of all progress.
as all the footprints of living beings are surpassed by the
footprint of the elephant, and the footprint of the elephant
is considered as the mightiest amongst them, just so have all
the meritorious qualities zeal as their foundation, and zeal
is considered as the mightiest of these qualities'' (A. X, 15).
the Chapter on Zeal (Appamáda Vagga) in Dhp., and the Buddha's
last exhortation: "Transient are all formations. Strive
zealously!" (appamádena sampádetha: D. 16)
- In the commentaries, it is often explained as the presence
(lit. 'non-absence') of mindfulness (satiyá avippavása).
a kind of heavenly being; s. deva, (II).
a kind of heavenly being: s. deva (II).
The 4 'Boundless States', identical with brahma-vihára
'attainment concentration' or 'full concentration' (from
apeti, to fix), is the concentration existing during
absorption (jhána, q.v.), whilst the neighbourhood or
access-concentration (upacára-samádhi) only approaches
the 1st absorption without attaining it; s. samádhi.
s. vimokkha. - Appanihitánupassaná; s. vipassaná.
The 3: kiñcana (q.v.).
'having only few wishes', contentedness, is one of the indispensable
virtues of the monk; cf. A. X. 181-190, and ariyavamsa
and arahatta-magga,-phala: s. ariya-puggala.
'object'. There are six: visible object, sound, odor, taste,
body-impression, mind-object. The mind-object (dhammárammana)
may be physical or mental, past, present or future, real or
imaginary. The 5 sense-objects belong to the corporeality-group
(rúpa-kkhandha, s. khandha). They form
the external foundations for the sense-perceptions, and without
them no sense-perception or sense-consciousness (seeing, hearing,
etc.) can arise. Cf. áyatana, paccaya. (App: paccaya
árammanupanissaya: s. paccaya.
The 'exercise of the forest-dweller', is one of the ascetic
purification-exercises (dhutanga, q.v.).
and vanishing (of things). The knowledge consisting in the
contemplation of; s. visuddhi (VI. 1.).
or simply ariya: 'Noble Ones', 'noble persons'.
The 8 ,a. are those who have realized one of the 8 stages
of holiness, i.e. the 4 supermundane paths (magga) and
the 4 supermundane fruitions (phala) of these paths.
There are 4 pairs:
The one realizing the path of Stream-winning (sotápattimagga).
The one realizing the fruition of Stream-winning (sotápattiphala).
The one realizing the path of Once-return (sakadágámiphala).
The one realizing the fruition of Once-return (sakadágámiphala).
The one realizing the path of Non-return (anágámimagga).
The one realizing the fruition of Non-return (anágámiphala).
The one realizing the path of Holiness (arahatta-magga).
The one realizing the fruition of Holiness (arahatta-phala).
up, there are 4 noble individuals (ariya-puggala): the
Stream-winner (Sotápanna), the Once-Returner (Sakadágámi),
the Non-Returner (Anágámí), the Holy One (Arahat).
A. VIII,10 and A. IX, 16 the gotrabhú (q.v.) is listed
as the 9th noble individual.
to the Abhidhamma, 'supermundane path', or simply 'path' (magga),
is a designation of the moment of entering into one of the 4
stages of holiness - Nibbána being the object - produced by
intuitional insight (vipassaná) into the impermanence,
misery and impersonality of existence, flashing forth and forever
transforming one's life and nature. By 'fruition' (phala)
is meant those moments of consciousness which follow immediately
thereafter as the result of the path, and which in certain circumstances
may repeat for innumerable times during the life-time.
Through the path of Stream-winning (sotápatti-magga)
one 'becomes' free (whereas in realizing the fruition, one 'is'
free) from the first 3 fetters (samyojana, q.v.) which
bind beings to existence in the sensuous sphere, to wit: (1)
personality-belief (sakkáya-ditthi; s. ditthi),
(2) skeptical doubt (vicikicchá, q.v.), (3) attachment to mere
rules and rituals (sílabbata-parámása; s. upádána).
Through the path of Once-return (sakadágámi-magga) one
becomes nearly free from the 4th and 5th fetters, to wit: (4)
sensuous craving (káma-cchanda = káma-rága; s.
rága), (5) ill-will (vyápáda = dosa, s.
Through the path of Non-return (anágámi-magga) one becomes
fully free from the above-mentioned 5 lower fetters.
Through the path of Holiness (arahatta-magga) one further
becomes free from the 5 higher fetters, to wit: (6) craving
for fine material existence (rúpa-rága), (7) craving
for immaterial existence. (arúpa-rága), (8) conceit (mána,
q.v.), (9) restlessness (uddhacca, q.v.), (10) ignorance
stereotype Sutta text runs as follows:
"After the disappearance of the three fetters, the monk
has won the stream (to Nibbána) and is no more subject to rebirth
in lower worlds, is firmly established, destined for full enlightenment.
"After the disappearance of the three fetters and reduction
of greed, hatred and delusion, he will return only once more;
and having once more returned to this world, he will put an
end to suffering.
"After the disappearance of the five fetters he appears
in a higher world, and there he reaches Nibbána without ever
returning from that world (to the sensuous sphere).
"Through the extinction of all cankers (ásava-kkhaya)
he reaches already in this very life the deliverance of mind,
the deliverance through wisdom, which is free from cankers,
and which he himself has understood and realized."
the various classes of Stream-winners and Non-Returners, s.
The sevenfold grouping of the noble disciples is as follows:
the faith-devotee (saddhánusárí), (2) the faith-liberated
one (saddhávimutta), (3) the body-witness (káya-sakkhí),
(4) the both-ways-liberated one (ubhato-bhága-vimutta),
(5) the Dhamma-devotee (dhammánusárí), (6) the vision-attainer
(ditthippatta), (7) the wisdom-liberated one (paññá-vimutta).
This group of seven noble disciples is thus explained in Vis.M.
"He who is filled with resolution (adhimokkha) and,
in considering the formations as impermanent (anicca),
gains the faculty of faith, he, at the moment of the path to
Stream-winning (A.1) is called a faith-devotee (saddhánusárí);
(2) at the seven higher stages (A. 2-8) he is called a faith-liberated
one (saddhá-vimutta). (3) He who is filled with tranquillity
and, in considering the formations as miserable (dukkha),
gains the faculty of concentration, he in every respect is considered
as a body-witness (káya-sakkhí). (4) He, however, who
after reaching the absorptions of the immaterial sphere has
attained the highest fruition (of Holiness), he is a both-ways-liberated
one (ubhato-bhága-vimutta). (5) He who is filled with
wisdom and, in considering the formations as not-self (anattá),
gains the faculty of wisdom, he is at the moment of Stream-winning
a Dhamma-devotee (dhammánusárí), (6) at the later stages
(A. 2-7) a vision-attainer (ditthippatta), (7) at the
highest stage (A. 8) a wisdom-liberated one (paññávimutta)."
- Further details about the body-witness, the both-ways-liberated
one and the wisdom-liberated one, s. under the three Páli terms.
Cf. also M. 70; A. IX, 44; S. XII, 70; Pts.M. II, p. 33, PTS.
The Four 'Noble Truths'; s. sacca.
The four 'noble usage's', are: contentedness (of the monk)
with any robe, contentedness with any alms-food, contentedness
with any dwelling, and delight in meditation and detachment.
In the Ariya-vamsa Sutta, (A. IV , 28) and similarly in D. 33,
it is said :
the monk is contented with any robe, with any alms-food, with
any dwelling, finds pleasure and enjoyment in mental training
and detachment . But neither is he haughty on that account,
nor does he look down upon others. Now, of a monk who herein
is fit and indefatigable, who remains clearly conscious and
mindful, of such a monk it is said that he is firmly established
in the ancient, noble usage's known as the most lofty ones."
tr. of Ariya-vamsa Sutta in WHEEL 83/84.
s. bhava, loka.
- s. jhána.
The four 'immaterial groups' of existence are: feeling,
perception, mental formations, consciousness; s. khandha.
The 'one reaching Nibbána without exertion', is one of the
five classes of Non-Returners (Anágámí, q.v.)
an Abhidhamma term signifying a 'state of consciousness
arisen spontaneously', i. e. without previous deliberation,
preparation, or prompting by others; hence: 'unprepared, unprompted'.
This term and its counterpart (sasankhárikacitta, q.v.),
probably go back to a similar distinction made in the Suttas
(A. IV, 171; "Path" 184). See Tab. I; examples in
Vis.M. XIV, 84f.
The 'Unformed, Unoriginated, Unconditioned' is a name for
Nibbána, the beyond of all becoming and conditionality.
The 'unconscious beings', are a class of heavenly beings
in the fine-material world; s. deva (II). "There
are, o monks, heavenly beings known as the unconscious ones.
As soon, however, as in those beings consciousness arises, those
beings will vanish from that world. Now, o monks, it may happen
that one of those beings after vanishing from that world, may
reappear in this world...." (D. 24). Further details, s.
Kath., Yam. (Guide, pp. 68, 79, 96 ff.).
(lit: influxes), 'cankers', taints, corruption's, intoxicant
biases. There is a list of four (as in D. 16, Pts.M., Vibh.):
the canker of sense-desire (kámásava), of (desiring eternal)
existence (bhavásava), of (wrong) views (ditthásava),
and of ignorance (avijjásava). A list of three, omitting
the canker of views, is possibly older and is more frequent
in the Suttas, e.g. in M. 2, M. 9, D. 33; A. III, 59, 67; A.
VI, 63. - In Vibh. (Khuddakavatthu Vibh.) both the 3-fold and
4-fold division are mentioned. The fourfold division also occurs
under the name of 'floods' (ogha) and 'yokes' (yoga).
the path of Stream-Entry, the canker of views is destroyed;
through the path of Non-Returning, the canker of sense-desire;
through the path of Arahatship, the cankers of existence and
ignorance. M. 2 shows how to overcome the cankers, namely, through
insight, sense-control, avoidance, wise use of the necessities
of life, etc. For a commentarial exposition, see Atthasálini
Tr. I, p. 63f: II, pp. 475ff.
'one whose cankers are destroyed', or 'one who is canker-free',
is a name for the Arahat or Holy One. The state of Arahatship
is frequently called ásavakkhaya, 'the destruction of
the cankers'. Suttas concluding with the attainment of Arahatship
by the listeners, often end with the words: "During this
utterance, the hearts of the Bhikkhus were freed from the cankers
through clinging no more" (anupádáya ásavehi cittáni
insight: s. vutthána-gáminí-vipassaná.
purification practices: s. dhutanga.
(lit.: 'not-learner'; s. sekha), a disciple 'perfected
in training', one beyond training, an adept. This is a name
for the Arahat, the Holy One (s. ariya-puggala), since
he has reached the perfection in higher moral training, higher
mind training and higher wisdom training (s. sikkhá)
and needs no longer to train himself therein.
'repetition', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
(lit.: 'I am'-conceit), 'ego-conceit', may range from the
coarsest pride and self-assertion to a subtle feeling of one's
distinctiveness or superiority that persists, as the 8th fetter
(samyojana, q.v.), until the attainment of Arahatship
or Holiness. It is based upon the comparison of oneself with
others, and may, therefore, manifest itself also as a feeling
of inferiority or the claim to be equal (s. mána). It
has to be distinguished from 'ego-belief' (sakkáya-ditthi,
q.v.) which implies a definite belief or view (ditthi)
concerning the assumption of a self or soul, and, being the
1st of the fetters, disappears at attainment of Stream-Entry
(sotápatti; s. ariya-puggala).
when the five lower fetters have vanished in a noble disciple,
there is still in him, with regard to the five groups of clinging,
a slight undiscarded measure of the conceit 'I am', of the will
'I am', of the proclivity 'I am' " (S . XXII, 89) . - s.
'in-and-out-breathing', are corporeal or physical functions
or 'formations' (káya-sankhára), whilst thought-conception
and discursive thinking (vitakka and vicára) are
called verbal functions (vací-sankhára), s. sankhára
(2). In-and-out-breathing forms one of the 6 aspects of the
wind-element (s. dhátu). Cf. M. 62.
sampayutta-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
q.v.). asubha: 'impurity', loathsomeness, foulness. -
In Vis.M. VI, it is the cemetery contemplations (sívathika,
q.v.) that are called 'meditation-subjects of impurity' (asubha-kammatthána;
s. bhávaná). In the Girimananda Sutta (A. X., 50), however,
the perception of impurity (asubha-saññá) refers to the
contemplation of the 32 parts of the body (s. káya-gatá-sati).
The contemplation of the body's impurity is an antidote against
the hindrance of sense-desire (s. nívarana) and the mental
perversion (vipallása, q.v.) which sees what is truly
impure as pure and beautiful. See S. XLVI, 51; A. V. 36, Dhp.
7, 8; Sn. 193ff. - The Five Mental Hindrances (WHEEL 26), pp.
'demons', titans, evil ghosts, inhabiting one of the lower
worlds (apáya, q.v.).
'the unworried', is the name of a class of deities (s. deva,)
inhabiting the first of the five Pure Abodes (suddhávása,
q.v.), in which the Anágámí (q.v.) has his last rebirth.
'superiority-conceit'; s. mána.
'self, ego, personality, is in Buddhism a mere conventional
expression (voháradesaná), and no designation for anything
really existing; s. paramattha-desaná, anattá, puggala, satta,
(-váda): 'ego-belief', 'personality-belief', s. ditthi.
appaná-samádhi (q.v.); s. samádhi.
'The 8 a.'; s. samápatti.
'self-mortification', is one of the two extremes to be avoided,
the other extreme being addiction to sensual pleasures (káma-sukha),
whilst the Noble 8-fold Path constitutes the Middle Path (majjhima-patipadá,
q.v.). See the Buddha's first sermon, "The Establishment
of the Realm of Dhamma" (Dhamma-cakkappavattana-Sutta).
(°citta, °ditthi): 'perception (consciousness,
view) of an ego', is one of the 4 perversions (vipallása,
'attachment to the ego-belief', is one of the 4 kinds of
clinging (upádána, q.v.).
attention, mindfulness; s. sati, satipatthána.
The 'Eightfold Path'; s. magga.
The 'analytical knowledge of meaning', is one of the 4 kinds
of analytical knowledge (patisambhidá, q.v.).
'presence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
organ: s. áyatana.
'sphere', realm. The 3 spheres of existence are: the sensuous
sphere (kámávacara), the fine-material sphere (rúpávacara),
the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara). "Which things
are of the sensuous sphere (kámávacara)? Whatever things
exist within the interval bounded beneath by the Avíci-hell
and above by the Paranimmitavasavatti-heaven (s. deva),
having therein their sphere, and being therein included, to
wit: the groups of existence, the elements, bases (s. khandha,
dhátu, áyatana), corporeality, feeling, perception,
mental formations and consciousness, all these things are of
the sensuous sphere. - But which things are of the fine material
sphere (rúpávacara)? Whatever things exist within the
interval bounded beneath by the Brahma-world and above by the
Akanittha-world (s. deva), having therein their
sphere, and being therein included ... and also consciousness
and mental factors in one who has entered the (fine-material)
absorptions, or who has been reborn in that sphere, or who already
during his life-time is living in happiness (of the absorptions),
all these things are of the fine-material sphere. - Which things
are of the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara)? Consciousness
and mental factors arising within the interval bounded beneath
by the beings reborn in the sphere of unbounded space and above
by the beings reborn in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
(s. jhána 5-8), and consciousness and mental factors
in one who has entered the (immaterial absorptions), or who
has been reborn in that sphere, or who already during his lifetime
is living in happiness (of the immaterial absorptions), all
these things are of the immaterial sphere." (Cf. Dhs. 1280,
1282, 1284; Vibh. XVIII). (App.).
'advertence' of the mind towards the object, forms the first
stage in the process of consciousness (s. viññána-kicca).
If an object of the 5 physical senses is concerned, it is called
'five-door advertence' (pañca dvárávajjana); in the case
of a mental object, 'mind-door advertence' (mano-dvárávajjana).
(from existence), contemplation of: s. vipassaná
(VI . 5)
is the name of one of the most frightful hells (niraya,
'non-disappearance', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
(derivation uncertain; Sanskrit avrha) is one of
the five Pure Abodes (suddhávása, q.v.) in the fine-material
sphere. For details, s. under Anágámí.
(equivalents: ahimsá, avihesá): 'harmlessness', nonviolence,
absence of cruelty. The 'thought of harmlessness' (or: 'non-cruelty';
avihimsá-vitakka) is one of the three constituents of
right thought (sammá-sankappa), i.e. the 2nd factor of
the Eightfold Path (s. magga). In the several lists of
'elements' (dhátu) appears also an 'element of harmlessness'
(avihesá-dhátu), in the sense of an elementary quality
of noble thought. See Dhp. 225, 261, 270, 300.
'ignorance,' nescience, unknowing; synonymous with delusion
(moha, s. múla), is the primary root of all evil
and suffering in the world, veiling man's mental eyes and preventing
him from seeing the true nature of things. It is the delusion
tricking beings by making life appear to them as permanent,
happy, substantial and beautiful and preventing them from seeing
that everything in reality is impermanent, liable to suffering,
void of 'I' and 'mine', and basically impure (s. vipallása).
Ignorance is defined as 'not knowing the four truths, namely,
suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the way to its cessation'
(S. XII, 4).
ignorance is the foundation of all life-affirming actions, of
all evil and suffering, therefore it stands first in the formula
of Dependent Origination (paticca-samuppáda, q.v.). But
for that reason, says Vis.M. (XVII, 36f) ignorance should not
be regarded as "the causeless root-cause of the world ...
It is not causeless. For a cause of it is stated thus 'With
the arising of cankers (ásava, q.v.) there is the arising
of ignorance' (M. 9). But there is a figurative way in which
it can be treated as a root-cause; namely, when it is made to
serve as a starting point in an exposition of the Round of Existence
... As it is said: 'No first beginning of ignorance can be perceived,
Bhikkhus, before which ignorance was not, and after which it
came to be. But it can be perceived that ignorance has its specific
condition (idappaccaya)" (A. X, 61). The same statement
is made (A. X, 62) about the craving for existence (bhava-tanhá;
s. tanhá). The latter and ignorance are called "the
outstanding causes of kamma that lead to unhappy and happy destinies"
(Vis.M. XVII, 38).
ignorance still exists - though in a very refined way until
the attainment of Arahatship or Holiness, it is counted as the
last of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.) which bind beings to
the cycle of rebirths. As the first two roots of evil, greed
and hate (s. múla), are on their part rooted in ignorance,
consequently all unwholesome states of mind are inseparably
bound up with it. Ignorance (or delusion) is the most obstinate
of the three roots of evil.
is one of the cankers (ásava, q.v.) and proclivities
(anusaya, q.v.). It is often called a hindrance (nívarana;
e.g. in S.XV, 3; A.X, 61) but does not appear together with
the usual list of five hindrances.
'undistractedness', is a synonym of concentration (samádhi,
q.v.), one-pointedness of mind (citt'ekaggatá) and tranquillity
(samatha, q.v.; further s. samatha-vipassaná).
and performance: s. cáritta, etc. - The effort to
avoid, s. padhána.
lit. 'indeterminate' - i.e. neither determined as karmically
'wholesome' nor as 'unwholesome' - are the karmically neutral,
i.e. amoral, states of consciousness and mental factors. They
are either mere karma-results (vipáka, q.v.), as e.g.
all the sense perceptions and the mental factors associated
therewith, or they are karmically independent functions (kiriya-citta,
q.v.), i.e. neither karmic nor karma-resultant. See Tab. I.
'hatelessness', non-ill-will, goodness; is one of the three
kinds of right thought (s. sacca, IV. 2), or wholesome
thoughts (vitakka, q.v.) and is the 9th of the 10 wholesome
courses of actions (kammapatha II. q.v.). The most frequently
used synonyms are adosa (s. múla) and mettá
1. 'spheres', is a name for the four immaterial absorptions;
s. jhána (5-8). 2. The 12 'bases' or 'sources' on which
depend the mental processes, consist of five physical sense-organs
and consciousness, being the six personal (ajjhattika)
bases; and the six objects, the so-called external (báhira)
bases - namely:
or visual organ visible object
or auditory organ sound, or audible object
or olfactory organ odour, or olfactive object
or gustatory organ taste, or gustative object
or tactile organ body-impression, or tactile object
or consciousness mind-object
the visual organ (cakkháyatana) is meant the sensitive
part of the eye (cakkhu-pasáda) built up of the four
elements ... responding to sense-stimuli" (sa-ppatigha)....
(Vibh. II). Similar is the explanation of the four remaining
(manáyatana) is a collective term for all consciousness
whatever, and should therefore not be confounded with the mind-element
(mano-dhátu; s. dhátu II, 16), which latter performs
only the functions of adverting (ávajjana) to the sense-object,
and of receiving (sampaticchana) the sense-object. On
the functions of the mind, s. viññána-kicca.
visible object (rúpáyatana) is described in Vibh. II
as "that phenomenon which is built up of the four physical
elements and appears as color, etc." What is' seen by-visual
perception, i.e. by eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññána)
are colors and differences of light, but not three dimensional
(dhammáyatana) is identical with 'mind-object-element'
(dhamma-dhátu; s. dhátu II) and dhammárammana
(s. árammana). It may be physical or mental, past, present
or future, real or imaginary.
5 physical sense-organs are also called faculties (indriya,
q.v.), and of these faculties it is said in M. 43: "Each
of the five faculties owns a different sphere, and none of them
partakes of the sphere of another one; ... they have mind as
their support... are conditioned by vitality, ... but vitality
again is conditioned by heat, heat again by vitality, just as
the light and flame of a burning lamp are mutually conditioned."
12 bases are fully discussed in Vis.M. XV. In Yam III (s Guide,
p 98f) the 12 terms are subjected to a logical investigation
The six personal bases form the 5th link of dependent origination
(paticca-samuppáda 5, q.v.).
(karmic) 'accumulation', is a name used in the commentarial
literature for the wholesome and unwholesome volitional activities
(karma, q.v.) or karma-formations (sankhára; s. paticca-samuppáda),
being the bases of future rebirth. " 'Accumulation',
is a name for the karma-formations, and signifies those volitions
(cetaná) which arise at the performance of a karma, first
while thinking 'I will give alms', and then while actually giving
alms (e.g.) for one month or a year. The volition, however,
at the time when one is handing the alms over to the recipient;
is called karma-process (kamma-bhava, s. Vis.M. XVII,
IX, X). Or, the volitions during the first six impulsive-moments
(javana, q.v.) depending on one and the same state of
advertence (ávajjana, s. viññána-kicca), these
are called the karma-formations, whilst the 7th impulsive moment
is called the karma-process (kamma-bhava).... Or, each
volition is called 'karma-process' and the accumulation connected
with it, 'karma-formation'. " (Vis.M. XVII). Cf. paticca-samuppáda
(2, 10) - (App.).