the 'both-ways-liberated one', is the name of one class
of noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.). He is liberated
in 2 ways, namely, by way of all 8 absorptions (jhána, q.v.)
as well as by the supermundane path (sotápatti, etc.)
based on insight (vipassaná, q.v.). In M. 70 it is said:
o monks, is a both-ways-liberated one'? If someone in his own
person has reached the 8 liberations (absorptions), and through
wise penetration the cankers (ásava, q.v.) have become
extinguished, such a one is called a both-ways-liberated one.''
Cf. D. 15.
the widest sense, one is both-ways-liberated if one has reached
one or the other of the absorptions, and one or the other of
the supermundane paths (cf. A. IX, 44).
first liberation is also called 'liberation of mind' (cetovimutti),
the latter liberation through wisdom' (paññá-vimutti).
first liberation, however, is merely temporary, being a liberation
through repression (vikkhambhana-vimutti = vikkhambhana-pahána:
'annihilation-view'; s. ditthi.
'knowledge consisting in the contemplation of rise and fall',
is the first of the 9 insight-knowledges constituting the purification
by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'. For details,
s. visuddhi, VI. 1.
'restlessness', belongs to the 10 fetters (samyojana,
q.v.), and to the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.). It is
one of those 4 mental factors inseparably associated with all
unwholesome consciousness (akusala-sádhárana, q.v.).
Cf. Tab. II.
the 5 'higher fetters'; s. samyojana.
'passing upstream to the highest gods', is one of the 5
kinds of Non-returners (anágámí, q.v.).
'one who already during a given explanation comes to penetrate
the truth' (Pug.). This is one of four types of persons classified
according to their ability of acquiring insight, mentioned in
A. IV, 133. Cf. also vipacitaññu, neyya, pada-parama.
See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL
171/174) p. 1ff.
(káya-, citta- ): 'uprightness' (of mental factors and of
consciousness), is associated with all pure consciousness. Cf.
the: asankhata (q.v.). - Contemplation of the
u. (= animitta); s. vipassaná.
beings: asaññá-satta (q.v.).
s. ditthi, ñána, paññá, pariññá. - Right u.,
s. magga (1). sacca (IV.1).
s. kalápa, rúpa-kalápa.
unprompted: s. asankhárika-citta.
deliverance: s. cetto-vimutti.
one, the: akuppa-dhamma (q.v.).
things, the 4: acinteyya (q.v.).
karmically: akusala (q.v.).
'moment of access'; s. javana.
'neighbourhood or access-concentrationn', is the degree
of concentration just before entering any of the absorptions,
or jhánas. It still belongs to the sensuous sphere (kámávacara;
rúpassa: 'growth of corporeality'; s. khandha I;
'destructive karma'; s. karma.
'clinging', according to Vis.M. XVII, is an intensified
degree of craving (tanhá, q.v.). The 4 kinds of clinging are:
sensuous clinging (kámupádána), clinging to views (ditthupádána),
clinging to mere rules and ritual (sílabbatupádána), clinging
to the personaljty-belief (atta-vádupádána).
"What now is the sensuous clinging? Whatever with regard
to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous
desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous passion, sensuous deludedness,
sensuous fetters: this is called sensuous clinging.
''What is the clinging to views? 'Alms and offerings are useless;
there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such
view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging to views.
"What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding
firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one may
reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules
"What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20
kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of existence (s.
sakkáya-ditthi): these are called the clinging to the
personality-belief" (Dhs. 1214-17).
traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory.
Besides kamupádána we should expect either rúpupádána
and arúpupádána, or simply bhavupádána. Though
the Anágámí is entirely free from the traditional 4 kinds of
upádána, he is not freed from rebirth, as he still possesses
bhavupádána. The Com. to Vis.M. XVII, in trying to get
out of this dilemma, explains kámupádána as including
here all the remaining kinds of clinging.
is the common rendering for u., though 'grasping' would
come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake';
s. Three Cardinal Discourses (WHEEL 17), p.19.
the 5 'groups of clinging', or more clearly stated in accordance
with Vis.M., 'the 5 groups of existence which form the objects
of clinging'. Cf. M. 44, and see khandha.
'derived corporeality', signifies the 24 secondary corporeal
phenomena dependent on the 4 primary physical elements, i.e.
the sense-organs and sense-objects, etc. See khandha
'substratum of existence'. In the Com. there are enumerated
4 kinds: the 5 groups (khandha, q.v.), sensuous desire
(káma), mental defilements (kilesa, q.v.), karma
(q.v.). In the suttas it occurs frequently in Sn. (vv. 33, 364,
546, 728), and, with reference to Nibbána, in the phrase "the
abandoning of all substrata" (sabbúpadhi-patinissagga;
D. 14). See viveka (3).
lit. 'something which one grasps, to which one clings, i.e.
the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.). In the suttas,
the word is mostly used in such expressions as "One of
the 2 fruits may be expected: either perfect wisdom or, if the
groups are still remaining (sati upádi-sese, 'if there
is a remainder of groups ), Anágámíship" (D. 22). Further
(A. IV. 118): "Here the Perfect One has passed into the
Nibbána-element in which no more groups are remaining (anupádi-sesa)."
Cf. nibbána. upádinna-rúpa: 'karmically acquired
corporeality', or 'matter clung-to (by karma)', is identical
with karma-produced corporeality (kammaja-rúpa; s. samutthána).
In Vis.M. XIV it is said: "That corporcality which, later
on, we shall refer to as 'karma-produced' (kammaja),
is, for its being dependent on previous (pre-natal) karma, called
'karmically acquired'. '' The term (upádinna) occurs
so in the suttas, e.g. M. 28 (WHEEL 101), 62, 140. See Dhs.
§990; Khandha Vibh.
'destructive karma'; s. karma.
'one who reaches Nibbána within the first half of life',
is one of the 5 kinds of Anágámí (q.v.).
'impurities', corruptions, imperfections (a frequent rendering
by 'defilements' is better reserved for kilesa, q.v.).
list of 16 moral 'impurities of the mind' (cittassa upakkilesa)
is mentioned and explained in M. 7 & 8 (WHEEI. 61/62):
1. covetousness and unrighteous greed (abhijjhá-visamalobha),
2. ill will (vyápáda), 3. anger (kodha), 4. hostility
(upanáha), 5. denigration (makkha), 6. domineering
(palása), 7. envy (issá), 8. stinginess (macchariya),
9. hypocrisy (máyá), 10. fraud (sátheyya), 11.
obstinacy (thambha), 12. presumption (sárambha),
13. conceit (mána), 14. arrogance (atimána), 15.
vanity (mada), 16. negligence (pamáda).
are 3 groups of upakkilesa pertaining to meditation:
9 mental imperfections occurring in 'one devoted to higher mental
training' (adhicitta); 3 coarse ones - evil conduct in deeds,
words and thoughts; 3 medium - thoughts of sensual desire, ill
will and cruelty; 3 subtle - thoughts about one's relatives,
one's country and one's reputation (A. III, 100).
18 imperfections in the practice of mindfulness of breathing
(ánápána-sati, q.v.), mentioned in Pts.M., Ánápána-kathá
(tr. in Mindfulness of Breathing, by Ñánamoli Thera (p. 60;
10 'imperfections of insight' (-meditation, vipassanúpakkilesa);
s. visuddhi V.
'decisive support' or 'inducement', is one of the 24 conditions
'karma ripening in the next birth'; s. karma.
'rebirth-process'; s. bhava.
'suppressive kamma'; s. karma.
lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay adherent', is any lay
follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge in the
Buddha, his doctrine and his community of noble disciples (A.
VIII, 25). His virtue is regarded as pure if he observes the
5 Precepts (pañca-síla; s. sikkhápada). He should
avoid the following wrong ways of livelihood: trading in arms,
in living beings, meat, alcohol and poison (A. V, 177). See
also A. VIII, 75.
'recollection of the peace of Nibbána', is the last of the
10 recollections (anussati, q.v.). "Whatsoever,
o monks, there are of things, as highest of them is considered
detachment (virága), i.e. the crushing of conceit, the
stilling of thirst, the uprooting of clinging, the breaking
through the round of rebirths, cessation of craving, detachment,
extinction, Nibbána" (A. IV, 34).
'female adherent'; s. upásaka.
'supportive karma'; s. karma.
'equanimity', also called tatra-majjhattatá (q.v.),
is an ethical quality belonging to the sankhára-group
(s. khandha) and should therefore not be confounded with
indifferent feeling (adukkha-m-asukhá vedaná) which sometimes
also is called upekkhá (s. vedaná).
is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihára, q.v.),
and of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).
See Vis.M. IV, 156ff.
= sankhárupekkhá-ñána (q.v.).
'equanimity as factor of enlightenment'; s. bojjhanga.
'equanimous happiness,' is the feeling of happiness accompanied
by a high degree of equanimity (upekkhá) as, e.g. in
the 3rd absorption (jhána q.v.).
the 'faculty of indifference', is one of the 5 elements
of feeling (M. 115) and therefore not to be confounded with
the ethical quality 'equanimity', also called upekkhá
'indulging in indifference'; s. manopavicára.
lit. 'fasting', i.e. 'fasting day', is the full-moon day,
the new-moon day, and the two days of the first and last moonquarters.
On full-moon and new-moon days, the Disciplinary Code, the Pátimokkha,
is read before the assembled community of monks (bhikkhu),
while on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faithful lay
devotees go to visit the monasteries, and there take upon themselves
the observance of the 8 rules (attha-síla; sikkhápada). See
A. VIII, 41ff.
to the highest gods, passing: s. anágámí.
the 4 noble: ariya-vamsa (q.v.).
temperature, heat, is identical with the heat-element (tejodhátu,
(- utuja)-rúpa: 'corporeality produced by temperature';