anabhirati-saññá: 'contemplation on disinterestedness regarding
the whole world', described in A. X., 60 in the following words:
"If, Ananda, the monk gives up his tenacious clinging to
the world, his firm grasping and his biases and inclinations
of the mind, and turns away from these things, does not cling
to them, this, Ananda, is called the contemplation on disinterestedness
regarding the whole world."
'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two truths', conventional and ultimale,
'The Four Noble Truths' (ariya-sacca) are the briefest
synthesis of the entire teachings of Buddhism, since all those
manifold doctrines of the threefold canon are, without any exception,
included therein. They are: the truth of suffering, of the origin
of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of the Eightfold
Path leading to the extinction of suffering.
The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches that all forms of existence
whatsoever are unsatisfactory and subject to suffering (dukkha).
The 2nd truth teaches that all suffering, and all rebirth, is
produced by craving (tanhá).
The 3rd truth teaches that extinction of craving necessarily
results in extinction (nirodha) of rebirth and suffering,
i.e. nibbána (q.v.).
The 4th truth of the Eightfold Path (magga) indicates
the means by which this extinction is attained.
stereotype text frequently recurring in the Sutta Pitaka, runs
"But what, o monks, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth
is suffering, decay is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow,
lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; in short,
the 5 groups of existence connected with clinging are suffering
(cf. dukkha, dukkhata).
''But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering?
It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth and, bound
up with lust and greed, now here, now there, finds ever fresh
delight. It is the sensual craving (káma-tanhá), the
craving for existence (bhava-tanhá), the craving for
non-existence or self-annihilation (vibhava-tanhá).
"But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the extinction
of suffering? It is the complete fading away and extinction
of this craving, its forsaking and giving up, liberation and
detachment from it.
"But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the path leading
to the extinction of suffering? It is the Noble Eightfold Path
(ariya-atthangika-magga) that leads to the extinction
of suffering, namely:
Right view (sammá-ditthi)
Right thought (sammá-sankappa)
Right speech (sammá-vácá)
Right action (sammá-kammanta)
Right livelihood (sammd-djiva)
Right effort (sammá-váyáma)
Right mindfulness (sammá-sati)
Right concentration (sammá-samádhi)
"What now, o monks, is right view (or right understanding)?
It is the understanding of suffering, of the origin of suffering,
of the extinction of suffering, and of the path leading to the
extinction of suffering.
"What now, o monks, is right thought? It is a mind free
from sensual lust, ill-will and cruelty.
"What now, o monks, is right speech? Abstaining from lying,
tale-bearing, harsh words, and foolish babble (cf. tiracchánakathá).
"What now, o monks, is right action? Abstaining from injuring
living beings, from stealing and from unlawful sexual intercourse
(s. kámesu micchácára).
"What now, o monks, is right livelihood? If the noble disciple
rejects a wrong living, and gains his living by means of right
livelihood (s. magga, 5).
"What now, o monks, is right effort? If the disciple rouses
his will to avoid the arising of evil, demeritorious things
that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to overcome
the evil, demeritorious things that have already arisen; ...
if he rouses his will to produce meritorious things that have
not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to maintain the meritorious
things that have already arisen and not to let them disappear,
but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection
of development; he thus makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts
his mind and strives (s. padhána).
"What now, o monks is right mindfulness? If the disciple
dwells in contemplation of corporeality ... of feeling ... of
mind ... of the mind-objects, ardent, clearly conscious, and
mindful after putting away worldly greed and grief (s. satipatthána).
"What now, o monks, is right concentration? If the disciple
is detached from sensual objects, detached from unwholesome
things, and enters into the first absorption ... the second
absorption ... the third absorption ... the fourth absorption"
the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta,
it is said that the first truth (suffering) is to be fully understood;
the second truth (craving) to be abandoned; the third truth
(Nibbána) to be realized; the fourth truth (the path) to be
truth of suffering is to be compared with a disease, the truth
of the origin of suffering with the cause of the disease, the
truth of extinction of suffering with the cure of the disease,
the truth of the path with the medicine" (Vis.M. XVI).
the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths are to be considered
as empty of a self, since there is no feeling agent, no doer,
no liberated one. no one who follows along the path. Therefore
it is said:
suffering exists, no sufferer is found.
deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.
is, but not the man that enters it.
path is, but no traveller on it is seen.
first truth and the second truth are empty
permanency, joy, of self and beauty;
Deathless Realm is empty of an ego,
free from permanency, joy and self, the path.'
must be pointed out that the first truth does not merely refer
to actual suffering, i.e. to suffering as feeling, but that
it shows that, in consequence of the universal law of impermanency,
all the phenomena of existence whatsoever, even the sublimest
states of existence, are subject to change and dissolution,
and hence are miserable and unsatisfactory; and that thus, without
exception, they all contain in themselves the germ of suffering.
Cf. Guide, p. 101f.
the true nature of the path, s. magga.
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (in WHEEL 17 and BODHI LEAVES);
M. 141; Sacca-Samyutta (S. LVI); Sacca Vibhanga; W. of B.;
Vis.M. XVI: The Four Noble Truths by Francis Story (WHEEL
34/35); The Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V. F.
Gunaratna (WHEEL 123).
'knowledge of the truth' (s. prec.), may be of 2 kinds:
(1) knowledge consisting in understanding (anubodha-ñána)
and (2) knowledge consisting in penetration (pativedha-ñána),
i.e. realization. Cf. pariyatti.
these, (1) 'knowledge consisting in understanding' is mundane
(lokiya, q.v.), and its arising with regard to the extinction
of suffering, and to the path, is due to hearsay etc. (therefore
not due to one's realization of the supermundane path; s. ariya-puggala)
(2) 'Knowledge consisting in penetration', however, is supermundane
(lokuttara), with the extinction of suffering (= nibbána)
as object, it penetrates with its functions the 4 truths
(in one and the same moment), as it is said (S. LVI, 30): whosoever,
o monks, understands suffering, he also understands the origin
of suffering, the extinction of suffering, and the path leading
to the extinction of suffering' " (Vis.M. XVI, 84). See
visuddhi (end of article).
the mundane kinds of knowledge, however, the knowledge of suffering
by which (various) prejudices are overcome, dispels the personality-belief
(sakkáya-dilthi, s. ditthi). The knowledge of
the origin of suffering dispels the annihilation-view (uccheda-ditthi,
s. ditthi); the knowledge of extinction of suffering,
the eternity-view (sassata-ditthi, s. ditthi); the
knowledge of the path, the view of inefficacy of action (akiriya-ditthi,
s. ditthi)" (Vis.M. XVI, 85).
anuloma-ñána (q.v.), puthujjana.
dhammá: 'things to be realized'. Recollection of former
states of existence is to be realized through remembrance (abhiññá
4; q.v.). The vanishing and reappearing of beings is to
be realized through the divine eye (abhiññá 5; q.v.).
The 8 deliverances (vimokkha, q.v.) are to be realized
through the mental group (káya, here feeling, perception,
mental formations; s. káya). The extinction of cankers
is to be realized through insight (vipassaná).
faith, confidence. A Buddhist is said to have faith if "he
believes in the Perfect One's (the Buddha's) Enlightenment"
(M 53; A.V, 2), or in the Three Jewels (s. ti-ratana),
by taking his refuge in them (s. ti-sarana). His faith,
however, should be "reasoned and rooted in understanding"
(ákáravatá saddhá dassanamúlika; M. 47), and he is asked
to investigate and test the object of his faith (M. 47, 95).
A Buddhist's faith is not in conflict with the spirit of inquiry,
and "doubt about dubitable things" (A. II, 65; S.
XLII, 13) is admitted and inquiry into them is encouraged. The
'faculty of faith' (saddhindriya) should be balanced
with that of wisdom (paññindriya; s. indriya-samatta).
It is said: "A monk who has understanding, establishes
his faith in accordance with that understanding" (S. XLVIII,
45). Through wisdom and understanding, faith becomes an inner
certainty and firm conviction based on one's own experience.
is called the seed (Sn. v. 77) of all wholesome states because,
according to commentarial explanations, it inspires the mind
with confidence (okappana, pasáda) and determination
(adhimokkha), for 'launching out' (pakkhandhana; s.
M. 122) to cross the flood of samsára.
faith is attained on reaching the first stage of holiness, 'stream-entry'
(sotápatti, s. ariyapuggala), when the fetter
of sceptical doubt (vicikicchá; s. samyojana)
is eliminated. Unshakable confidence (avecca-pasáda) in
the Three Jewels is one of the characteristic qualities of the
Stream-winner (sotápannassa angáni, q.v.).
is a mental concomitant, present in all karmically wholesome,
and its corresponding neutral, consciousness (s. Tab. II). It
is one of the 4 streams of merit (puññadhárá, q.v.),
one of the 5 spiritual faculties (indriya, q.v.), spiritual
powers (bala, q.v.), elements of exertion (padhániyanga,
q.v.) and one of the 7 treasures (dhana, q.v.).
Faith in the Buddha's Teaching, by Soma Thera (WHEEL 262).
"Does Saddhá mean Faith?'' by Ñánamoli Thera (in WHEEL
and saddhá-vimutta: the 'faith-devoted and the 'faith-liberated',
are two of the 7 kinds of noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala,
'heaven'; s. deva (heavenly heings).
'co-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
the 'Once-returner': s. ariya-puggala, A.
the 'King of Gods' (devánam-inda), is the lord over
the celestial beings in the heaven of the Thirty-Three' (távatimsa,
'existing group'. 'this word is usually translated by 'personality',
but according to the commentaries it corresponds to sat-káya,
'existing group', hence not to Sanskrit sva-káya, 'own
group' or 'own body'. In the suttas (e.g. M. 44) it is said
to be a name for the 5 groups of existence (khandha): "Sakkáya,
o Brother Visákha, is said by the Blessed One to be a name for
the 5 'groups as objects of clinging' (upádána-kkhandha),
to wit: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations,
and consciousness." - See foll.
'personality-belief', is the first of the 10 fetters (samyojana).
It is entirely abandoned only on reaching the path of Stream-winning
(sotápatti-magga; s. ariya-puggala). There are
20 kinds of personality-belief, which are obtained by applying
4 types of that belief to each of the 5 groups of existence
(khandha, q.v.): (1-5) the belief to be identical with
corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations or consciousness;
(6-10) to be contained in them; (11-15) to be independent of
them; (16-20) to be the owner of them (M. 44; S. XXII. 1). See
prec., ditthi, upádána 4.
the '6 bases' (of mental activity); s. áyatana, paticcasamuppáda.
'concentration'; lit. 'the (mental) state of being firmly
fixed' (sam+á+Ö há), is the fixing of the mind on a single
object. "One-pointedness of mind (cittass' ekaggatá),
Brother Visakha, this is called concentration" (M.
44). Concentration - though often very weak - is one of the
7 mental concomitants inseparably associated with all consciousness.
Cf. náma, cetaná.
concentration (sammá-samádhi), as the last link of the
8-fold Path (s. magga), is defined as the 4 meditative
absorptions (jhána, q.v.). In a wider sense, comprising
also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with
all karmically wholesome (kusala) consciousness. Wrong
concentration (micchá-samádhi) is concentration associated
with all karmically unwholesome (akusala, q.v.) consciousness.
Wherever in the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right'
or 'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant .
concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:
'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma-samádhi) existing
at the beginning of the mental exercise.
'Neighbourhood concentration' (upacára-samádhi), i.e.
concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption
(jhána, q.v.), which in certain mental exercises is marked
by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image' (patibhága-nimitta).
'Attainment concentration' (appaná-samádhi), i.e. that
concentration which is present during the absorptions. (App.)
details, s. bhávana, Vis.M. III and Fund. IV.
connected with the 4 noble path-moments (magga), and
fruition-moments (phala), is called supermundane (lokuttara),
having Nibbána as object. Any other concentration, even
that of the sublimest absorptions is merely mundane (lokiya,
to D. 33, the development of concentration (samádhi-bhávaná)
may procure a 4-fold blessing: (1) present happiness through
the 4 absorptions; (2) knowledge and vision (ñána-dassana)
- here probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s. abhiññá)
through perception of light (kasina); (3) mindfulness
and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge of the arising,
persisting and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts;
(4) extinction of all cankers (ásavakkhaya) through understanding
the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects
of clinging (s. khandha).
is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga,
q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala),
and the last link of the 8-fold Path. In the 3-fold division
of the 8-fold Path (morality, concentration and wisdom), it
is a collective name for the three last links of the path (s.
'means, or requisites of concentration', are the 4 foundations
of mindfulness (satipatthána q.v.). See M. 44.
-thiti-kusalatá, -utthánakusalatá: skilfulness in
entering into concentration, in remaining in it, and in rising
from it. Cf. S.XXXIV, llff.
'concentration as factor of enlightenment' (s. bojjhanga).
iddhi: the 'power of penetrating concentration', is one
of the magical faculties (iddhi, q.v.).
'contiguity', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
the 'fruits of monkhood', is the name of a famous sutta
(D. 2) and also, according to D. 33, a name for the 4 supermundane
fruitions: Stream-entrance, Once-return, Non-return, and Perfect
Holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
'attainments', is a name for the 8 absorptions of the fine-material
and immaterial spheres to which occasionally is added as 9th
attainment, attainment of extinction (nirodhasamápatti)
one 'who attains two ends simultaneously', namely: the extinction
of cankers and the end of life (s. Pug. 19). In A. VIII, 6 it
is said: "Such is the case with a monk who dwells in the
contemplation of impermanency of all forms of existence, keeping
before his eyes their impermanency, perceiving their impermanency,
perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of firm mind, wisely
absorbed; and in whom at one and the same time the extinction
of cankers and the end of like take place." (App.)
'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym of samádhi
(coneentration), cittekaggatá (one-pointedness of mind)
and avikkhepa (undistractedness). It is one of the mental
factors in 'wholesome consciousness. Cf. foll. and bhávaná.
'tranquillity and insight', are identical with concentration
(samádhi, q.v.; s. prec.) and wisdom (paññá, q.v.),
and form the two branches of mental development (bhávaná,
'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed, peaceful and lucid state
of mind attained by strong mental concentration. Though as a
distinct way of practice (s. samatha-yánika), it aims
at the attainment of the meditative absorptions (jhána,
q.v.), a high degree of tranquil concentration (though not necessarily
that of the absorptions) is indispensable for insight too. Tranquillity
frees the mind from impurities and inner obstacles, and gives
it greater penetrative strength.
now is the power of tranquillity (samatha-bala)? It is
the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind due to freedom
from desire (renunciation) ... to freedom from ill-will ...
to the perception of light (s. aloka-saññá) ... to non-distraction
... to the defilling of phenomena ... to knowledge, gladness,
the 8 attainments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections, the
9 cemetery contemplations, the 32 kinds of respiration-mindfulness
... the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind of one
contemplating abandonment (relinquishment) while inhaling and
exhaling (s. ánápánasati).
power of tranquillity consists of the freedom from perturbation;
in the 1st absorption, from the 5 hindrances (nívarana,
(q.v.); in the 2nd absorption, from thought-conception and discursive
thinking; ... in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
it consists of the freedom from perturbation by the perception
of the sphere of nothingness (s. anupubbanirodha), which
is no longer agitated and irritated by defilements associated
with restlessness, nor by the groups of existence" (Pts.M.
1. p. 97)
'Insight' (s. vipassaná) is the penetrative understanding
by direct meditative experience of the impermanency, unsatisfactoriness
and impersonality of all material and mental phenomena of existence.
It is insight that leads to entrance into the supermundance
states of holiness and to final liberation.
now is the power of insight? It is the contemplation of impermanency
(aniccánupassaná), of misery (dukkhanupassaná),
impersonality' (anattánupassaná), of aversion (nibbidanupassaná),
detachment (viráganupassaná), extinction (nirodha),
ahandonment (patinissagga), with regard to corporcality,
feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness....
That in contemplating the impermanency one is no more agitated
by the idea of grasping ... no more by ignorance and the defilements
associated therewith and no more by the groups of existence:
this is called the power of insight" (Pts.M. p. 97).
things are conducive to knowledge: tranquillity and insight.
If tranquillity is developed, what profit does it bring? The
mind is developed. If the mind is developed, what profit does
it bring? All lust is abandoned.
insight is developed, what profit does it bring? Wisdom is developed.
If wisdom is developed, what profit does it bring? All ignorance
is abandoned" (A. II, 2.7).
is a method of meditative practice where, in alternating sequence,
tranquillity-meditation and insight-meditation are developed.
It is called 'tranquillity and insight joined in pairs' (samatha-vipassanáyuganaddha),
the coupling or yoking of tranquillity and insight. He who undertakes
it, first enters into the 1st absorption. After rising from
it, he contemplates the mental phenomena that were present in
it (feeling, perception, etc.) as impermanent, painful and not-self,
and thus he develops insight. Thereupon he enters into the 2nd
absorption; and after rising from it, he again considers its
constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc. In this way, he passes
from one absorption to the next, until at last, during a moment
of insight, the intuitive knowledge of the path (of Stream-entry,
etc.) flashes forth - See A. IV, 170; A.IX, 36; Pts: Yuganaddha
'one who takes tranquillity as his vehicle'. This is a name
for a person who not only has reached insight but also one or
the other of the absorptions, to distinguish him from one 'who
practises only insight' (sukkha-vipassaka, q.v.).
= bodhi (q.v.).
= bojjhanga (q.v.).
-sankappa, -vaca, etc: see magga.
'right exertion', is identical with the 6th link of the
8-fold path (s. magga, padhána).
'Perfect Enlightenment', Universal Buddhahood, is the state
attained by a Universal Buddha (sammá-sambuddha), i.e.
one by whom the liberating law (dhamma) which had become
lost to the world, has again been discovered, realized and clearly
proclaimed to the world.
someone, in things never heard before, understands by himself
the truth, and he therein attains omniscience, and gains mastery
in the powers. Such a one is called a Universal Buddha, or Enlightened
One" (Pug. 29).
doctrine characteristie of all the Buddhas, and each time rediscovered
by them and fully explained to the world, consists in the 4
Truths (sacca, q.v.) of suffering, its origin, its extinction
and the way to its extinction (s. magga). See bodhi.
'comprehension', exploring, 'determining' (vavatthána,
q.v.) is a name for the determining of all phenomena of existence
as impermanent, miserable and impersonal (anicca, dukkha,
anattá), etc., which is the beginning of insight (s. Pts.M.
I, p. 53; Vis.M. XX); also called kalápa-s. (q.v.), 'comprehension
by groups (of existence - khandha).' (App.).
the 'state of rightness', are the 8 links of the 8-fold
Path (D. 33). Cf. micchátta.
'conventional truth', is identical with vohára-sacca
'attainment, blessing'. The 5 blessings are said to be faith,
morality, learning, liberality, wisdom (A. V, 91). Further:
morality, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, the eye of knowledge
connected with deliverance (A. V, 92).
'clarity of consciousness', clear comprehension. This term
is frequently met with in combination with mindfulness (sati).
In D. 22, M. 10 it is said: "Clearly conscious is he in
going and coming, clearly conscious in looking forward and backward,
clearly conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly
conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, clearly
conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious
in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and awakening;
clearly conscious in speaking and keeping silent." - For
a definition of the term sati-sampajañña, s. Pug. 86.
to the Com., 'clarity of consciousness' is of 4 kinds: regarding
the purpose, the suitability, (inclusion in the meditative)
domain, and the undeluded conception of the activity concerned.
Explained in detail in Com. to Satipatthána Sutta. (tr. in The
Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; BPS).
'receptive consciousness', is the mindelement (mano-dhátu)
that follows immediately upon the arising of sense-consciousness
(visual consciousness, etc.), performing on that occasion the
function of recciving the sense-object. Regarding the other
functions of consciousness, s. viññána-kicca.
'condition of association', is one of the 24 conditions
= phassa (q.v.).
'round of rebirth', lit. perpetual wandering', is a name
by which is designated the sca of life ever restlessly heaving
up and down, the symbol of this continuous process of ever again
and again being born, growing old, suffering and dying. More
precisely put, samsára is the unbroken chain of the five-fold
khandha-combinations, which, constantly changing from moment
to moment follow continuously one upon the other through inconceivable
periods of time. Of this samsára, a single lifetime constitutes
only a tiny and fleeting fraction; hence to be able to comprehend
the first noble truth of universal suffering, one must let one's
gaze rest upon the samsára, upon this frightful chain
of rebirths, and not merely upon one single life-time, which,
of course, may be sometimes less painful. - Cf. tilakkhana,
anattá, paramattha, patisandhi.
'companionship'. (1) "Through companionship with bad
men (asappurisa-s.) comes listening to bad advice, thereby
unwise reflection, thereby inattention and mental confusion,
thereby lack of sense-control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in
bodily action, speech and mind, thereby the 5 hindrances (nívarana,
q.v.), thereby craving for existence. (2) Through companionship
with good men (sappurisa-s. ) comes listening to good
advice, thereby faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby mindfulness
and clarity of consciousness, thereby sense-control, thereby
3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4 foundations of mindfulness
(satipatthána, q.v ), thereby the 7 factors of enlightenment
(bojjhanga, q.v.), thereby liberation through wisdom
(paññá-vimutti, q.v.)." Cf. A. X 62.
'overcoming by destruction', is the absolute extinction
of certain fetters of existence (samyojana, q.v.), which
takes place by entering into one of the 4 supermundane paths
of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). - Regarding the 5 kinds
of overcoming, s. pahána.
'truth of the origin', i.e. the origin of suffering, is
the 2nd of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.).
'origination'. There are 4 kinds of origination of corporeal
phenomena, namely: through karma, consciousness, temperature,
nutriment. For example, 'karma-produced' (kamma-s. = kammaja,
karma-born) are the sense organs, sexual characteristics, etc.,
which, according to their nature, are conditioned either through
wholesome or unwholesome karma formations (volitional actions;
s. paticcasamuppáda, 2) in a previous existence. 'Mindproduced',
i.e. consciousness-produced (citta-samutthána = cittaja)
are bodily and verbal expression (viññatti, q.v.).
For a detailed exposition, see Vis.M. XX. - (App.).
'effort to avoid'; s. padhána.
'indriya-s.'; s. síla.
'purity of control', is another name for morality consisting
of restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-síla; s.
'the sources of emotion', or of a sense of urgency, are
8: "birth, old age, disease, death, being 4; the suffering
in the lower states of existence being the 5th; further, the
misery of the past rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery
of the future rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of
the present rooted in the search after food" (Vis.M. III.).
'places rousing emotion', are 4: the place where the Perfect
One was born, (i.e. the Lumbini-grove near Kapilavatthu, at
the present frontier of Nepal); the place where he reached Full
Enlightenment (i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli, and Buddhagayá,
on the Nerañjara-river; the modern Lilanja); the place where
he, for the first time, unveiled the Dhamma to the world (i.e.
the deer-park at Isipatana near Benares); the place where he
entered the final Nibbána (i.e. Kusinára). (A. IV, 118).
'fetters'. There are 10 fetters tying beings to the wheel
of existence, namely: (1) personality-belief (sakkáya-ditthi,
q.v.), (2) sceptical doubt (vicikicchá q.v.), (3)
clinging to mere rules and ritual (sílabbata-parámása; s.
upádána), (4) sensuous craving (káma-rága, 4.v.),
(5) ill-will (vyápáda), (6) craving for fine-material
existence (rúpa-rága), (7) craving for immaterial existence
(arúpa-rága), (8) conceit (mána, q.v.), (9) restlessness
(uddhacca, q.v.), (10) ignorance (avijjá, q.v.).
The first five of these are called 'lower fetters' (orambhágiya-samyojana),
as they tie to the sensuous world. The latter 5 are called
'higher fetters' (uddhambhágiya-samyojana), as they tie
to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial
world (A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D . 33, etc.).
who is free from 1-3 is a Sotápanna, or Stream-winner, i.e.
one who has entered the stream to Nibbána, as it were. He who,
besides these 3 fetters, has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser
form, is called a Sakadágámi, a 'Once-returner' (to this sensuous
world). He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anágámí, or 'Non-returner'
(to the sensuous world). He who is freed from all the 10 fetters
is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Holy One.
more details, s. ariya-puggala.
10 fetters as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII,
are: sensuous craving, ill-will, conceit, wrong views, sceptical
doubt, clinging to mere rules and ritual, craving for existence,
envy, stinginess, ignorance.
= cetaná, q.v.
the 4 'ways of showing favour' are liberality, kindly speech,
beneficial actions, impartiality (A. IV, 32; VIII, 24).
(lit.: congregation), is the name for the Community of Buddhist
monks. As the third of the Three Gems or Jewels (ti-ratana,
q.v.) and the Three Refuges (ti-sarana, q.v.), i.e. Buddha,
Dhamma and Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha, the
community of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones (ariya-pugga,
q.v.), the Stream-winner, etc.
'thought', is a synonym of vitakka (q.v.). For sammá-s.,
or right thought, s. magga (2).
This term has, according to its context, different shades
of meaning, which should be carefully distinguished.
To its most frequent usages (s. foll. 1-4) the general term
'formation' may be applied, with the qualifications required
by the context. This term may refer either to the act of 'forming
or to the passive state of 'having been formed' or to both.
As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination, (paticcasamuppáda,
q.v.), sankhára has the active aspect, 'forming,
and signifies karma (q.v.), i.e. wholesome or unwholesome volitional
activity (cetaná) of body (káya-s.), speech (vací-s.)
or mind (citta- or mano-s.). This definition occurs,
e.g. at S. XII, 2, 27. For s. in this sense, the word
'karma-formation' has been coined by the author. In other passages,
in the same context, s. is defined by reference to (a)
meritorious karma-formations (puññ'ábhisankhára), (b)
demeritorious k. (apuññ'abhisankhára), (c) imperturbable
k. (áneñj'ábhisankhára), e.g. in S. XII, 51; D. 33. This
threefold division covers karmic activity in all spheres of
existence: the meritorious karma-formations extend to the sensuous
and the fine-material sphere, the demeritorious ones only to
the sensuous sphere, and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial
The aforementioned three terms, káya-, vací- and citta-s.
are sometimes used in quite a different sense, namely as (1)
bodily function, i.e. in-and-out-breathing (e.g. M. 10), (2)
verbal function, i.e. thought-conception and discursive thinking,
(3) mental-function, i.e. feeling and perception (e.g. M. 44).
It also denotes the 4th group of existence (sankhárakkhandha),
and includes all 'mental formations' whether they belong to
'karmically forming' consciousness or not. See khandha,
Tab. II. and S. XXII, 56, 79.
It occurs further in the sense of anything formed (sankhata,
q.v.) and conditioned, and includes all things whatever
in the world, all phenomena of existence. This meaning applies,
e.g. to the well-known passage, "All formations are impermanent...
subject to suffering" (sabbe sankhára aniccá ... dukkhá).
In that context, however, s. is subordinate to the still
wider and all-embracing term dhamma (thing); for dhamma
includes also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element (asankhata-dhátu),
i.e. Nibbána (e.g. in sabbe dhammá anattá, "all
things are without a self").
Sankhára also means sometimes 'volitional effort', e.g.
in the formula of the roads to power (iddhi-páda, q.v.);
in sasankhára- and asankhára-parinibbáyí (s. anágámí,
q.v.); and in the Abhidhamma terms asankhárika- (q.v.)
and sasankhárika-citta, i.e. without effort = spontaneously,
and with effort = prompted.
Western literature, in English as well as in German, sankhára
is sometimes mistranslated by 'subconscious tendencies' or similarly
(e.g Prof Beckh: "unterbewußte Bildekräfte," i.e.
subconscious formative forces). This misinterpretation derives
perhaps from a similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature,
and is entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the term
in Páli Buddhism, as listed above under I, 1-4. For instance,
within the dependent origination, s. is neither subconscious
nor a mere tendency, but is a fully conscious and active karmic
volition. In the context of the 5 groups of existence (s. above
I, 3), a very few of the factors from the group of mental formations
(sankhárakkhandha) are also present as concomitants of
subconsciousness (s. Tab. I-III), but are of course not restricted
to it, nor are they mere tendencies.
the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations
of existence', is one of those kinds of knowledge which form
the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'
(s. visuddhi, VI, 8). "It is known by 3 names: in
the lowest stage it is called 'knowledge consisting in the desire
for deliverance' (rnuccitu-kamyatá-ñána); in the middle
stage it is called the 'reflecting contemplation' (patisankhánupassanáñána);
in the last stage, however, i.e. after attaining the summit,
it is called the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations
of existence' " (Vis.M. XXI).
the 'formed', i.e. anything originated or conditioned, comprises
all phenomena of existence. Cf. sankhára I, 4; asankhata.
citta: in the Satipatthána Sutta, signifies the 'contracted'
or 'cramped' mind, not the concentrated (samáhita) mind,
as often translated by Western authors. Cf. Satipatthána
1. 'perception', is one of the 5 groups of existence (khandha,
q.v.), and one of the 7 mental factors (cetasika) that
are inseparably bound up with all consciousness (s. cetaná).
It is sixfold as perception of the 5 physical sense-objects
and of mental objects. It is the awareness of an object's distinctive
marks ("one perceives blue, yellow, etc.," S. XXII,
79). If, in repeated perception of an object, these marks are
recognized, saññá functions as 'memory' (s. Abh. St.,
saññá stands sometimes for consciousness in its entirety,
e.g. in n'eva-saññá-n'ásaññáyatana, 'the realm of neither-perception-nor-
non-perception'; further, in asaññá-satta, 'unconscious
beings'. In both cases reference is not to 'perception' alone,
but also to all other constituents of consciousness. Cf. D.
saññá may also refer to the 'ideas', which are objects
of meditation, e.g. in a group of 7 ideas, of impermanence (anicca-s.
), etc. (A. VII, 46); of 10: impurity (asubha-s.),
etc. (A. X, 56), and another set of 10 in A. X. 60; or to wrong
notions, as in nicca-, subha-s. (the notion of permanence,
= nirodha-samápatti (q.v.).
'perversion of perception' (s. vipallása).
= samyojana (q.v.).
= santati: 'continuity', may refer to the continuity
of consciousness (citta-s.), of the groups of existence
(khandha-s.), of sub-consciousness (bhavanga-s.),
of corporeality (rúpa-s.), to the uninterrupted continuity
of the paticcasamuppáda (q.v.), etc. (App.).
'investigating consciousness', is one of the stages in the
cognitive series. For the 14 functions of consciousness. s.
'contentedness'; s. ariya-vamsa.
'corporeality reacting to sense stimuli', refers to the
5 sense-organs (áyatana, q.v.). - Cf. Vibh. II (s. Guide
II, Chap. II) and Vis.M. XIV; further s. patigha 2.
(lit. 'message'): the Dispensation of the Buddha, the Buddhist
religion; teaching, doctrine.
(or satthu)-sásana, the ninefold Dispensation of
the Buddha (or the Master) consists of suttas (sutta), mixed
prose (geyya), exegesis (veyyákarana), verses
(gáthá), solemn utterances (udána), sayings of
the Blessed One (itivuttaka), birth stories (játaka),
extraordinary things (abbhutadhamma), and analysis
(vedalla). This classification is often found in the suttas
(e.g. M. 22). According to the commentaries, also the Vinaya
and the Abhidhamma Pitaka are comprised in that ninefold division
(see Atthasálini Tr., I, 33). It is a classification according
to literary styles, and not according to given texts or books.
'one who reaches Nibbána with exertion', is a name of one
of the 5 kinds of Non-returners (anágámí, q.v.).
(in Dhs.: sasankhárena ): a prepared, or prompted.
state of consciousness, arisen after prior deliberation (e.g.
weighing of motives) or induced by others (command, advice,
persuasion) - See Tab. I; exemplified in Vis.M. XIV, 84f. -
Opposite: asankhárika-citta, q.v.
(-váda): 'eternity-belief', is the belief in a soul or personality
existing independently of the 5 groups of existence, and continuing
after death eternally, as distinguished from the 'annihilation-belief'
(uccheda-ditthi), i.e. the belief in a personality falling
at death a prey to absolute annihilation. For more details,
'mindfulness', is one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers
(s. bala), one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga,
q.v.), and the 7th link of the 8-fold Path (magga, q.v.),
and is, in its widest sense, one of those mental factors inseparably
associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala, q.v.)
and karma-produced lofty (sobhana) consciousness (Cf.
Tab. II). - For the 4 foundations of mindfulness s. foll.
the 4 'foundations of mindfulness', lit. 'awarenesses of
mindfulness' (sati-upatthána), are: contemplation of
body, feeling, mind and mind-objects. - For sati, s.
detailed treatment of this subject, so important for the practice
of Buddhist mental culture, is given in the 2 Satipatthána Suttas
(D. 22; M. 10), which at the start as well as the conclusion,
proclaim the weighty words: "The only way that leads to
the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation,
to the end of pain and grief, to the entering of the right path,
and to the realization of Nibbána is the 4 foundations of mindfulness."
these introductory words, and upon the question which these
4 are, it is said that the monk dwells in contemplation of the
body, the feelings, the mind, and the mind-objects, "ardent,
clearly conscious and mindful, after putting away worldly greed
4 contemplations are in reality not to be taken as merely separate
exercises, but on the contrary, at least in many cases, especially
in the absorptions, as things inseparably associated with each
other. Thereby the Satipathána Sutta forms an illustration of
the way in which these 4 contemplations relating to the 5 groups
of existence (khandha, q.v.) simultaneously come to be
realized, and finally lead to insight into the impersonality
of all existence.
The contemplation of the body (káyanupassaná) consists
of the following exercises: mindfulness with regard to in-and-outbreathing
(ánápánasati, q.v.), minding the 4 postures (iriyápatha,
q.v.), mindfulness and clarity of consciousness (satisampajañña,
q.v.), reflection on the 32 parts of the body (s. káyagatásati
and asubha), analysis of the 4 physical elements (dhátuvavatthána,
q.v.), cemetery meditations (sívathiká q.v.).
All feelings (vedanánupassaná) that arise in the meditator
he clearly perceives, namely: agreeable and disagreeable feeling
of body and mind, sensual and super-sensual feeling, indifferent
He further clearly perceives and understands any state of consciousness
or mind (cittánupassaná), whether it is greedy or not,
hateful or not, deluded or not, cramped or distracted, developed
or undeveloped, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or
unconcentrated, liberated or unliberated.
Concerning the mind-objects (dhammánupassaná), he knows
whether one of the five hindrances (nívarana, q.v.) is
present in him or not, knows how it arises, how it is overcome,
and how in future it does no more arise. He knows the nature
of each of the five groups (khandha, q.v.), how they
arise, and how they are dissolved. He knows the 12 bases of
all mental activity (áyatana q.v.): the eye and the visual
object, the ear and the audible object, .. mind and mind-object,
he knows the fetters (samyojana, q.v.) based on them,
knows how they arise, how they are overcome, and how in future
they do no more arise. He knows whether one of the seven factors
of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.) is present in him
or not, knows how it arises, and how it comes to full development.
Each of the Four Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.) he understands
according to reality.
4 contemplations comprise several exercises, but the Satipatthána
should not therefore be thought of as a mere collection of meditation
subjects, any one of which may be taken out and practised alone.
Though most of the exercises appear also elsewhere in the Buddhist
scriptures, in the context of this sutta they are chiefly intended
for the cultivation of mindfulness and insight, as indicated
by the repetitive passage concluding each section of the sutta
(see below). The 4 contemplations cover all the 5 groups of
existence (khandha, q.v.), because mindfulness is meant
to encompass the whole personality. Hence, for the full development
of mindfulness, the practice should extend to all 4 types of
contemplation, though not every single exercise mentioned under
these four headings need be taken up. A methodical practice
of Satipatthána has to start with one of the exercises out of
the group 'contemplation of the body', which will serve as the
primary and regular subject of meditation: The other exercises
of the group and the other contemplatons are to be cultivated
when occasion for them arises during meditation and in everyday
cach contemplation it is shown how it finally leads to insight-knowledge:
"Thus with regard to his own body he contemplates the body,
with regard to the bodies of others he contemplates the body,
with regard to both he contemplates the body. He beholds how
the body arises and how it passes away, beholds the arising
and passing away of the body. 'A body is there' (but no living
being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, nothing that
belongs to a self; neither a person, nor anything belonging
to a person; Com.): thus he has established his attentiveness
as far as it serves his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives
independent, unattached to anything in the world.''
the same way he contemplates feeling, mind and mind-objects.
M. 118 it is shown how these four foundations of mindfulness
may be brought about by the exercise of mindfulness on in-and-out
breathing (ánápána-sati, q.v.).
The Way of Mindfullness, tr. of Sutta and Com., by Soma
Thera (3rd ed; Kandy 1967, BPS). - The Heart of Buddhist
Meditation, by Nyanaponika Thera (3rd ed.; London. Rider
& Co.). The Foundations of Mindfulness (tr. of M. 10),
Nyanasatta Thera (Wheel 19). The Satipatthána Sutta and
its Application to Modern Life, V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 60).
- The Power of Mindfulness by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 121/122).
'mindfulness as factor of enlightenment' s. bojjhanga.
'mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, s. sampajañña.
'living being'. This term, just like attá, puggala, jíva,
and all the other terms denoting 'ego-entity', is to be
considered as a merely conventional term (vohára-vacana),
not possessing any reality-value. For the impersonality
of all existence. s. anattá, paramattha, puggala, jíva, satta,
'one wth only 7 further rebirths at the utmost', is one
of the 3 kinds of Stream-winners (sotápanna, q.v.).
nava: 'abodes of beings'. In the sutta-texts (e.g. D. 33;
A.IX, 24) 9 such abodes are mentioned:
are, o monks, 9 abodes of beings, namely:
"There are beings who are different in body and different
in perception, such as the human beings, some heavenly beings,
and some beings living in the world of suffering (vinipátika,
''There are beings who are different in body but equal in perception,
such as the first-born gods of the Brahma-world (i.e. at the
beginning of each new world-formation; s. deva II).
''There are beings who are equal in body but different in perception,
such as the Radiant Gods (ábhassara, s. deva II).
"There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception,
such as the All-Illuminating Gods (subha-kinha; s. deva
"There are beings without perception and feeling, such
as the unconscious beings (asañña-satta, q.v.).
"There are beings who, through the complete overcoming
of perceptions of matter (rúpa-sañña), the disappearance
of perceptions of sense-reaction (patigha-sañña), and
the non-attention to perceptions of variety thinking: 'Boundless
is space', are reborn in the sphere of buundless space (s. deva,
III; jhána, 5).
"There are beings who, through the complete overcoming
of the sphere of boundless space, thinking: 'Boundless is consciousness',
are reborn in the sphere of boundless consciousness (s. jhána
"There are beings who, through the complete overcoming
of the sphere of boundless consciousness, thinking: 'Nothing
is there, are reborn in the sphere of nothingness (s. jhána,
"There are beings who, through the complete overcoming
of the sphere of nothingness, are reborn in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
(s. jhána, 8)" (A. IX, 24).
to the Com. to A., the beings of the Pure Abodes (suddhávása,
q.v.) are not mentioned here, for the reason that they exist
only in those world-periods in which Buddhas appear. Cf. viññána-tthiti.
s. nibbána, upádi.
'hearer', i.e. 'disciple', refers, in a restricted sense
(then mostly ariya-sávaka, 'nohle disciple'), only to
the 8 kinds of noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.).
'enlightenment of the disciple', designates the holiness
of the disciple, as distinguished from the holiness of the Pacceka-Buddha
(q.v.) and the Sammá-sambuddha (q.v.).
doubt: vicikicchá (q.v.). Cf. kankhá.
a 'noble learner', a disciple in higher training, i.e. one
who pursues the 3 kinds of training (sikkhá, q.v.), is
one of those 7 kinds of noble disciples who have reached one
of the 4 supermundane paths or the 3 lower fruitions (s. ariya-puggala),
while the one possessed of the 4th fruition, or Arahatta-phala,
is called 'one beyond training' (asekha, lit. 'no more
learner'). The worldling (puthujjana, q.v.) is called
'neither a noble learner, nor perfected in learning' (n'eva-sekha-násekha).
Cf. Pug. 23-25.
craving for: vibhava-tanhá (s. tanhá).
'dwelling place', is one of the 4 requisites of the monk's
life (s. síla 4). To be suitable for spiritual training,
it should possess 5 advantages. As it is said (A. X, 11): "But
how, o monks, does the dwelling place possess 5 advantages?
Such a dwelling place is not too far, nor too near (to the village),
is suitable for going (on almsround) and returning. In the daytime
it is not much crowded, and at night without noise and bustle.
One is not much molested there by gadflies, mosquitoes, wind,
sun and creeping things. While living there, the monk without
difficulty obtains robes, almsfood, dwelling, and the necessary
medicines. There are elder monks living there, with great learning,
well versed in the Message, masters of the Law (dhamma),
of the Discipline (vinaya) and of the Tables of Contents
(i.e. either the twofold Abhidhamma Matrix, or the Bhikkhu and
Bhikkhuni Pátimokkha; s. pátimokkha). And he approaches
them from time to time, questions them, asks them for explanations,
and objects: s. áyatana, dhátu.
corporeality responding to: s. áyatana.
corporeality: pasáda-rúpa (q.v.).
(subj. & obj.): káma (q.v.).
clinging: kámúpádána; s. upádána.
craving: káma-tanhá (-rága), is one of the
10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and one of the 3 kinds
of craving (tanhá, q.v.).
sphere (-world): s. avacara, loka.
rebirths at the utmost: s. sotápanna.
intercourse, unlawful: s. kámesu micchácára.
(animitta): s. ceto-vimutti, vimokkha, vipassaná.
the 'training', which the Buddha's disciple has to undergo,
is 3-fold: training in higher morality (adhisíla-sikkhá),
in higher mentality (adhicitta-sikkhá), and in higher
wisdom (adhipaññá-sikkhá). This 3-fold training refers
to the 3-fold division of the the 8-fold Path (magga, q.v.)
in morality, concentration and wisdom (síla, samádhi, paññá).
In D. 16 and A.IV,1 it is said:
is through not understanding, not penetrating noble morality
... noble concentration ... noble wisdom ... noble deliverance
that I, as well as you, have had for such a long time to pass
through this round of rebirths.''
then is morality, this concentration, this wisdom, this deliverance.
Being endowed with morality, concentration brings high fruit
and blessing. Being endowed with concentration, wisdom hrings
high fruit and blessing. Being endowed with wisdom, the mind
becomes freed from all cankers (ásava q.v.) namely, from
the sensuous canker (kámásava), from the canker of existence
(bhavasava) from the canker of opinions (ditthisava)
from the canker of ignorance (avijjásava).
'steps of training', moral rules.
5 moral rules, also called pañca-síla which are binding
on all Buddhist laymen, are: (1) abstaining from killing any
living being, (2) from stealing, (3) from unlawful sexual intercourse,
(4) from lying, (5) from the use of intoxicants.(s. surámeraya
10 rules (dasa-síla) are binding on all novices and monks,
namely: (1) abstaining from killing, (2) from stealing, (3)
from unchastity, (4) from lying, (5) from the use of intoxicants,
(6) from eating after midday, (7) from dancing, singing, music
and shows, (8) from garlands, scents, cosmetics and adornments,
etc., (9) from luxurious beds, (10) from accepting gold and
the 8 rules (attha-síla) which on full and new moon days,
and on the first and last quarter of the moon, are observed
by many lay-followers (upásaka, q.v.), the 7th and 8th
of the above 10 rules are fused into one as the 7th rule, while
the 9th becomes the 8th.
'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and volition (cetana,
q.v.) manifested in speech or bodily action (s. karma). It is
the foundation of the whole Buddhist practice, and therewith
the first of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhá, q.v.) that
form the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (s. magga),
i.e. morality, concentration and wisdom.
morality is not, as it may appear from the negative formulations
in the Sutta-texts, something negative. And it does not consist
in the mere not committing of evil actions, but is in each instance
the clearly conscious and intentional restraint from the bad
actions in question and corresponds to the simultaneously arising
of the 8-fold Path, namely, right speech, right action and right
livelihood, is called 'genuine or natural morality' pakatisíla),
as distinguished from the external rules for monks or laymen,
the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paññatti-síla, q.v.),
which, as such, is karmically neutral.
now is karmically wholesome morality (kusala-síla)? It
is the wholesome bodily action (káya-kamma, s. karma),
wholesome verbal action (vací-kamma, s. karma), and also
the purity with regard to livelihood which I call morality"
(M. 78). Cf. magga, 3-5.
the 5, 8 and 10 rules, s. sikkhápada. Further cf. cáritta-
4 kinds of morality consisting of purification (catupárisuddhi-síla)
are: (1) restraint with regard to the monks' Disciplinary
Code, (2) restraint of the senses, (3) purification of livelihood,
(4) morality with regard to the 4 requisites (of the monk) .
Restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code (pátimokkha-samvara-síla).
"Here the monk is restrained in accordance with the monks'
Disciplinary Code, is perfect in conduct and behaviour, and
perceiving danger even in the least offences, he trains himself
in the rules he has taken upon him" (A . V, 87,109 ,114,
etc. ) .
Restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-síla). "Whenever
the monk perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear,
an odour with the nose, a taste with the tongue, an impression
with the body, an object with the mind, he neither adheres to
the appearance as a whole, nor to its parts. And he strives
to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things,
greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded
senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses"
Purification of livelihood (ájíva-párisuddhi-síla). It
consists therein that the monk does not acquire his livelihood
in a way unbefitting to a monk.
Morality with regard to the 4 rcquisites (paccaya-sannissita-síla).
It consists therein that the monk is guided by the right mental
attitude when making use of the 4 requisites: robes, almsfood,
dwelling and medicine. "Wisely reflecting he makes use
of his robes ... merely to protect himself against cold and
heat, etc. Wisely reflecting he makes use of his almsfood...
merely as a prop and support to this body.... Wisely reflecting
he makes use of his dwelling... merely to keep off the dangers
of weather and to enjoy solitude.... Wisely rerlecting he makes
use of the necessary medicines, merely to suppress feelings
of sickness that arise, and to reach perfect freedom from suffering"
(cf. M. 2).
these 4 kinds of morality, Vis.M. I gives a detailed exposition.
and -upádána: 'attachment (or clinging) to mere rules and
ritual', is the 3rd of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.),
and one of the 4 kinds of clinging (upádána, q.v.). It
disappears on attaining to Stream-entry (sotápatti). For
definition, s. upádána.
s. sikkhá, magga.
buddha: pacceka-buddha (q.v.).
position, sleeping in: s. dhutanga.
'cemetery contemplations', as deseribed in D. 22 and M.
10, have as their objects a corpse one or two or three days
old, swollen up, blue-black in colour, full of corruption; a
corpse eaten by crows, etc.; a framework of bones; flesh hanging
from it, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews;
without flesh and blood, but still held together by the sinews;
bones scattered in all direction; bleached and resembling shells;
heaped together after the lapse of years; weathered and crumbled
to dust. At the end of each of these contemplations there follows
the conclusion: "This body of mine also has this nature,
has this destiny, cannot escape it." Similar are the 10
objects of loathsomeness (asubha q.v.).
middha, s. nívarana.
'lofty', beautiful, pure, are called, in Abh. S., all states
of consciousness excepting the unwholesome and those without
roots (ahetuka). Sobhana-sádhárana are called
the mental factors (cetasika) common to all lofty consciousness;
s. Tab. II.
lit 'glad-minded-ness' (su+manas+ya), gladness, joy;
identical with 'mentally agreeable feeling' (cetasiká sukhá
vedaná), belongs to the feeling-group (vedaná-kkhandha,
s. khandha II), and is enumerated amongst the 22 faculties
(indriya, q.v.). It may or may not be associated with
karmically wholesome consciousness (s. Tab. I. 1-4, 9-12, 18-21),
with karmically unwholesome consciousness (greedy c. ib. 22-25),
and with karmically neutral consciousness (ib. 40, 42-45, 57-60,
66-69, 72-76. 81-84), - Somanassa is not identical with
'indulging in gladness'; s. mano-pavicára.
the 'Stream-winner', is the lowest of the 8 noble disciples
(s. ariya-puggala). Three kinds are to be distinguished:
the one 'with 7 rebirths at the utmost' (sattakkhattu-parama),
the one 'passing from one noble family to another' (kolankola),
the one 'germinating only once more' (eka-bíjí). As it
is said (e.g. Pug. 37-39; A. III, 87):
"If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters (personality-belief,
skeptical doubt, attachment to rules and ritual; s. samyojana),
has entered the stream (to Nibbána), he is no more subject to
rebirth in lower worlds, is firmly established, destined to
full enlightenment. After having passed amongst the heavenly
and human beings only seven times more through the round of
rebirths, he puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called
'one with 7 births at the utmost' (sattakkhattu-parama).
"If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters....
is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having passed among
noble families two or three times through the round of rebirths,
puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one passing
from one noble family to another' (kolankola).
"If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters....
is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having only once
more returned to human existence, puts an end to suffering.
Such a man is called 'one germinating only once more' (eka-bíjí).
See Sotápatti-Samyutta (S. LV).
angáni: the 'characteristic qualities of a Stream-winner'
are 4: unshakable faith towards the Enlightened One, unshakable
faith towards the Doctrine, unshakable faith towards the Order,
and perfect morality. Explained in S. LV, I, D. 33, in S. XLVII,
8 and in Netti-ppakarana these 4 qualities are called sotápattiyanga
'Stream-entry'; s. sotápanna; s. -magga, -phala,
'path and fruition of Stream-entry'; s. ariyapuggala.
the 4 (preliminary) 'conditions to Stream-entry' are: companionship
with good persons, hearing the Good Law, wise reflection, living
in conformity with the Law (S. LV, 5; D. 33). Cf. sotápannassa
(of existence): avacara (q.v.). - The 4 immaterial
spheres (áyatana): s. jhána (5-8).
faculties: s. indriya (15-19), indriya-samatta,
born beings: opapátika (q.v.).
the 3: mala (q.v.).
(of morality etc.): s. hána-bhágiya-síla. S.
of existence: vivatta (q.v.).
macchariya (q.v.); cf. Tab. II.
karma: katattá; s. karma.
s. sotápanna, ariya-puggala.
of merit: puññadhárá (q.v.).
s. sotápanna, ariya-puggala.
stream (of existence): bhavanga-sota (q.v.).
(or-kinna): s. deva, II.
'beautiful (or attractive) object of mind'; it may become
an inducement to the arising of sense-desire (kámacchanda;
s. nívarana): "No other thing do I know, o monks,
through which in such a degree sense-desire may arise, and once
arisen will continue to grow, as an attractive object. Whoso
does not wisely consider an attractive object, in him sense-desire
will arise, and once arisen will continue to grow" (A.
-citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (consciousnes or view)
of beauty (or purity)' in what is actually devoid of it (asubhe
subha-saññá), is one of the 4 perversions (vipallása,
abodes (or States): brahma-vihára (q.v.).
of existence: upadhi (q.v.).
'good conduct', is 3-fold, in body, speech and mind, and
comprises the 10 wholesome courses of action (s. kammapatha).
According to A. X, 61, it has sense-control as its condition.
See D. 33, A. II, 17; III, 2.
births, karma ripening in: s. karma.
sudassí: s. foll.
the 'Pure Abodes', are a group of 5 heavens belonging to
the fine-material world (rúpa-loka, s. loka),
where only the Non-returners (s. anágámí, q.v.) are reborn,
and in which they attain Arahatship and Nibbána (ariya-puggala).
The names of the inhabitants of these Pure Abodes are: Áviha,
Átappa, Sudassa, Sudassí, Akanittha. Cf. anágámí.
= sukkha-vipassaka (q.v.).
For the 4 Truths of suffering, s. sacca; further
'happy course of existence'; s. gati.
pleasant, happy; happiness, pleasure, joy, bliss. It is
one of the three feelings (s. vedaná) and may be either
bodily or mental. The texts distinguish between the happiness
of the senses and the h. of renunciation (A. II), worldly (carnal;
sámisa) and unworldly (non-carnal; nirámisa) happiness
(M. 10). See A. II, ch. VIII. - Happiness is an indispensable
condition for attaining concentration of mind (samádhi, q.v.),
and therefore it is one of the 5 factors (or constituents) of
the 1st absorption (jhánanga; s. jhána) and is
present up to the 3rd absorption inclusively. "The mind
of the happy one has concentration as its fruit and reward"
(A.X,1). - "In him who is filled with happiness, right
concentration has found a foundation" (A.X,3).
-citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (consciousness or view)
of happiness' in what is actually suffering (dukkhe sukha-saññá),
i.e. any form of existence, it is one of the perversions
'one supported by bare insight', is the commentarial term
for one who, without having attained any of the meditative absorptions
(jhána, q.v.), has realized only by the support of insight
(vipassaná, q.v.) one or several of the supermundane
paths (s. ariyapuggala). In Vis.M. XVIII, he is called
suddha-vipassaná-yánika, as distinguished from 'one who
has tranquillity as vehicle' (samathayánika, q.v.). Though
the primary meaning of sukkha as intended here is as
stated above, subcommentaries (e.g. D. Tíká) employ also the
literal meaning of sukkha, i.e. 'dry': "His insight
is dry, rough, unmoistened by the moisture of tranquillity meditation."
This justifies a frequent rendering of this term by 'dry-visioned'
or 'having dry insight', which, however, should not lead to
misconceptions about the nature of insight meditation as being
'dry' or 'merely intellectual', while in fact the development
of insight will produce rapture (píti) and a sense of
urgency (samvega) in the meditator. - (App.).
(adj.), suññatá (noun): void (ness), empty (emptiness).
As a doctrinal term it refers, in Theraváda, exclusively to
the anattá doctrine,.i.e. the unsubstantiality of all
phenomena: "Void is the world ... because it is void of
a self and anything belonging to a self" (suññam attena
vá attaniyena vá; S. XXXV, 85); also stated of the 5 groups
of existence (khandha, q.v.) in the same text. See also
M. 43, M. 106. - In CNidd. (quoted in Vis.M. XXI, 55), it is
said: "Eye ... mind, visual objects ... mind-objects, visual
consciousness ... mind-consciousness, corporeality ... consciousness,
etc., are void of self and anything belonging to a self; void
of permanency and of anything lasting, eternal or immutable..
They are coreless: without a core of permanency, or core of
happiness or core of self." - In M. 121, the voiding of
the mind of the cankers, in the attainment of Arahatship, is
regarded as the "fully purified and incomparably highest
(concept of) voidness. - See Sn. v. 1119; M. 121; M. 122 (WHEEL
87); Pts.M. II: Suñña-kathá; Vis.M. XXI, 53ff.
'contemplation of emptiness' (s. prec.), is one of the 18
chief kinds of insight (vipassaná, q.v.). Cf. Vis.M.
'emptiness-deliverance'; s. vimokkha.
lokuttara (q.v.); -faculties, s. indriya
mahaggata (q.v.); -knowledges, s. abhiññá.
decisive support: (nissaya, upanissaya) are
two of the 24 conditions (s. paccaya).
karma: upatthambhaka-kamma; s. karma.
karma: upapílaka-kamma; s. karma.
veramaní sikkhápadam samádiyámi: "I take upon myself
the vow to abstain from taking intoxicants and drugs such as
wine, liquor, etc. since they lead to moral carelessness."
This is the wording of the last of the 5 moral rules (s. sikkhápada)
binding on all Buddhists .
paññá: 'knowledge based on learning'; s. paññá.