lit. 'the going forth', or more fully stated, 'the going
forth from home to the homeless life' of a monk (agárasmá
anagáriyam pabbajjá), consists in severing all family and
social ties to live the pure life of a monk, in order to realize
the goal of final deliverance pointed out by the Enlightened
One. Thus, p. has become the name for admission as a
sámanera, or novice, i.e. as a candidate for the Order of
Bhikkhus, or monks.
Going Fonh, by Sumana Samanera (WHEEL 27/28) - Ordination
in Theraváda Buddhism (WHEEL 56).
'retrospective knowledge', refers to the recollected mental
image obtained in concentration, or to any inner experience
just passed, as for instance, any absorption (jhána q.v.),
or any supermundane path, or fruition of the path, etc. (s.
ariya-puggala). As it is said: "At the end of fruitional
consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subconscious stream
of existence (bhavanga-sota, q.v.). Then, breaking off
the stream of existence, mental advertence (manodvárávajjana)
arises at the mind-door, for the purpose of retrospecting
the (just passed) path-moment. Now, as soon as this stage has
passed, 7 moments of impulsive consciousness (javana-citta),
one after the other, flash up while retrospecting the path.
After they again have sunk into the subconscious stream, there
arise, for the purpose of retrospecting the fruition of the
path the moments of advertence and impulsion, during whose arising
the monk is retrospecting the path, retrospecting the fruition,
retrospecting the abandoned defilements, retrospecting the still
remaining defilements, retrospecting Nibbána as object ....
'This blessing have I attained' .... 'This and that defilement
still remains in me' .... 'This object have I beheld in my mind',
etc." (Vis.M. XXII).
'purity of reflection', is a name for wise consideration
in using the 4 requisites allowed to the monk, i.e. robes, food,
dwelling, and medicine; s. síla (4).
'condition', is something on which something else, the so-called
'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter
cannot be. Manifold are the ways in which one thing, or one
occurrence, may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence.
In the Patthána, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (comprising
6 large vols. in the Siamese edition), these 24 modes of conditionality
are enumerated and explained, and then applied to all conceivable
mental and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus their
conditioned nature is demonstrated.
first two volumes of the Patthána have been translated into
English by the Venerable U Nárada (Múlapatthána Sayadaw) of
Burma, under the title Conditional Relations (Published by the
Páli Text Society, London 1969, 1981). For a synopsis of this
work, see Guide VII.
24 modes of conditionality are:
Root condition : hetu paccaya
Object " : árammana "
Predominance " : adhipati "
Priority " : anantara "
Contiguity " : samanantara "
Co-nascence " : sahajáta "
Mutuality " : aññamañña "
Support " : nissaya "
Decisive Support " : upanissaya "
Pre-nascene " : purejáta "
Post-nascene " : pacchájáta "
Repitition " : ásevana "
Karma " : kamma "
Karma-result " : vipáka "
Nutriment " : áhára "
Faculty " : indriya "
Jhána " : jhána "
Path " : magga "
Associaton " : sampayutta "
Dissociation " : vippayutta "
Presence " : atthi "
Absence " : natthi "
Disappearance " : vigata "
Non-disappearance " : avigata "
Root-condition (hetu-paccaya) is that condition that
resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root,
and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed,
similarly all karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental states
are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their
respective roots, i.e, of greed (lobha), hate (dosa),
delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness
(adosa), undeludedness (amoha). For the definition
of these 6 roots, s. múla.
roots are a condition by way of root for the (mental) phenomena
associated with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena produced
thereby (e.g. for bodily expression)" (Patth).
Object-condition (árammana-paccaya) is called something
which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness and
mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting
in colour and light ('light-wave'), is the necessary condition
and the sine qua non for the arising of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññána),
etc.; sound ('sound wave') for ear-consciousness (sotá-viññána),
etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is the condition
for mind-consciousness (mano-viññána). The mind-object
may be anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present
or future, real or imaginary.
Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya) is the term
for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which
are dependent the mental phenomena associated with them, namely:
concentrated intention (chanda, q.v.), energy (viriya,
q.v.), consciousness (citta) and investigation (vímamsá).
In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one
of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. "Whenever
such phenomena as consciousness and mental concomitants are
arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then
this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way
of predominance" (Patth.). Cf. iddhi-páda.
Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy)-condition (anantara
and samanantara-paccaya) - both being identical -
refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated
with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following
stage in the process of consciousness. For example, in the visual
process, eye-consciousness is for the immediately following
mindelement - performing the function of receiving the visible
object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element
for the next following mind-consciousness element, performing
the function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. viññána-kicca.
Co-nascence condjtion (sahajáta-paccaya), i.e. condition
by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another
one forms, a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with
its arising, also the other thing must arise. Thus, for instance,
in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups (feeling,
perception, mental formations and consciousness) is for the
3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising;
or again each of the 4 physical elements (solid, liquid, heat,
motion) is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at
the moment of conception in the mother's womb does corporeality
(physical base of mind) serve for the 4 mental groups as a condition
by way of conascence.
Condition by way of mutuality (aññámañña-paccaya). All
the just mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena,
as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the same
time also conditioned by way of mutuality, "just like three
sticks propped up one by another." The 4 mental groups
are one for another a condition by way of mutuality. So also
are the 4 elements, and also mentality and corporeality at the
moment of conception.
Support-condition (nissaya-paccaya). This condition refers
either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon
which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation
or base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation,
or as the oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the
5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are for the
corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously
arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent
(s. 6) phenomena are mutually (s. 7) conditioned by each other
by way of support.
Decisive-support (or inducement) condition (upanissaya-paccaya)
is threefold, namely (a) by way of object (árammanúpanissaya-paccaya),
(b) by way of proximity (anantarúpanissaya), (c) natural
decisive support (pakatupanissaya). These conditions
act as strong inducement or cogent reason.
Anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, real
or imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive
support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral or karmically
neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong thinking about
them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right thinking,
an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement
not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things, such
as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.
is identical with proximity condition (No. 4).
Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence
of climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural
and decisive support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural
inducement to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed
to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to ill-health;
friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.
Pre-nascence-condition (purejáta-paccaya) refers to something
previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising
later on. For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical
base of mind, having already arisen at the time of birth, form
the condition for the consciousness arising later, and for the
mental phenomena associated therewith.
Post-nascence-condition (pacchá-játa-paccaya) refers
to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because
they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition
for the preservation of this already arisen body.
Repetition-condition (ásevana-paccaya) refers to the
karmical consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulsive
moments (javana-citta, q.v.) are for all the succeeding
ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency, just as
in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later
recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.
Karma-condition (kamma-paccaya). The pre-natal karma
(i.e karma-volitions, kamma-cetaná, in a previous birth)
is the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the
fivefold sense-consciousness, and the other karma-produced mental
and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. - Karmical volition
is also a condition by way of karma for the co-nascent mental
phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no
Karma-result-condition (vipáka-paccaya). The karma-resultant
5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of karma-result
for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
Nutriment-condition (áhára-paccaya). For the 4 nutriments,
Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya). This condition applies
to 20 faculties (indriya, q.v.), leaving out No. 7 and
8 from the 22 faculties. Of these 20 faculties, the 5 physical
sense-organs (1 - 5), in their capacity as faculties, form a
condition only for uncorporeal phenomena (eye-consciousness
etc.); physical vitality (6) and all the remaining faculties,
for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
Jhána-condition (jhána-paccaya) is a name for the 7 so-called
jhána-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental
and corporeal phenomena, to wit: (1) thought-conception (vitakka),
(2) discursive thinking (vicára), (3) interest
(píti), (4) joy (sukha), (5) sadness (domanassa),
(6) indifference (upekkhá), (7) concentration (samádhi).
(For definition s. Páli terms. )
2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness (s.
Tab. I. 22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness (ib. 30,
31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of deluded consciousness (ib.
condition does not only apply to jhána alone, but also
to the general intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7
Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers to the 12 path-factors,
as these are for the karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental
phenomena associated with them, a way of escape from this or
that mental constitution, namely: (1) knowledge (paññá =
sammáditthi, right understanding), (2) (right or wrong)
thought-conception (vitakka), (3) right speech (sammá-vácá),
(4) right bodily action (sammá-kammanta), (5) right
livelihood (sammá-ájíva), (6) (right or wrong) energy
(viriya), (7) (right or wrong) mindfulness (sati),
(8) (right or wrong) concentration (samádhi), (9) wrong
views (miccháditthi), (10) wrong speech (micchá-vácá),
(11) wrong bodily action (micchá-kammanta), (12) wrong
livelihood (micchá-ájíva). Cf. magga.
Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya) refers to
the co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental
groups (khandha), "as they aid each other by their
being associated, by having a common physical base, a common
object, and by their arising and disappearing simultaneously"
Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya) refers to
such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not baving the same
physical base (eye, etc.) and objects. Thus corporeal phenomena
are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way
of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.
Presence-condition (atthi-paccaya) refers to a phenomenon
- being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence
is a condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to
the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.
Absence-condition (natthi-paccaya) refers to consciousness,
etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary
condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness
by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.
Disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya) is identical
with No. 22.
Non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya) is identical
with No. 21.
24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding
of that famous formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppáda,
q.v.). Cf. Fund. III, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.) .
The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka
'morality consisting in the wise use of the monk's requisities';
s. síla (4).
'independent enlightenment'; s. the foll. and bodhi.
an 'Independently Enlightened One'; or Separately or Individually
(=pacceka) Enlightened One (renderings by 'Silent' or
'Private Buddha' are not very apt). This is a term for an Arahat
(s. ariya-puggala) who has realized Nibbána without having
heard the Buddha's doctrine from others. He comprehends the
4 Noble Truths individually (pacceka), independent of
any teacher, by his own effort. He has, however, not the capacity
to proclaim the Teaching effectively to others, and therefore
does not become a 'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or Universal
Buddha (sammá-sambuddha). - Paccekabuddhas are described
as frugal of speech, cherishing solitude. According to tradition,
they do not arise while the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is
known; but for achieving their rank after many aeons of effort,
they have to utter an aspiration before a Perfect Buddha.
references are few; Pug. 29 (defin.); A. II, 56; in M. 116,
names of many Paccekabuddhas are given; in D. 16 they are said
to be worthy of a thúpa (dagoba); the Treasure-Store
Sutta (Nidhikhandha Sutta, Khp.) mentions pacceka-bodhi;
the C. Nidd. ascribes to individual Paccekabuddhas the verses
of the Rhinoceros Sutta (Khaggavisána Sutta, Sn.) - See bodhi.
The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg (WHEEL 305/307).
'post-nascence-condition', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
'foundation-forming absorption', is an absorption used as
a foundation, or starting point, for the higher spiritual powers
(abhiññá, q.v.), or for insight (vipassaná, q.v.),
leading to the supermundane paths (s. ariya-puggala).
The foundation for the former is the 4th absorption; for insight,
however, any absorption is suitable. For details, s. samatha-vipassaná.
'one for whom the words are the utmost attainment'. "Whoever,
though having learned much, speaking much, knowing many things
by heart, and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth,
such a man is called by that name" (Pug. 163).
'effort.' The 4 right efforts (samma-padhána), forming
the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path (i.e. sammá-váyáma,
s. magga) are: (1) the effort to avoid (samvara-padhána),
(2) to overcome (pahána-padhána), (3) to develop
(bhávaná-padhána), (4) to maintain (anurakkhana-padhána),
i.e. (1) the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states,
such as evil thoughts, etc. (2) to overcome unwholesome states,
(3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the
7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), (4) to
maintain the wholesome states.
monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome
things not yet arisen ... to overcome them ... to develop wholesome
things not yet arisen ... to maintain them, and not to let them
disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the
full perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up
his energy, exerts his mind and strives" (A. IV, 13).
"What now, o monks, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving
a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or
mental impression, the monk neither adheres to the whole nor
to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which
evil and unwholesome things might arise, such as greed and sorrow,
if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his
senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.
"What now is the effort to overcome? The monk does not
retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil, unwholesome
states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them,
destroys them, causes them to disappear. This is called the
effort to overcome.
"What now is the effort to develop? The monk develops the
factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on
extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sati),
investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy (viriya),
rapture (píti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton
(samádhi), equanimity (upekkhá). This is called
the effort to develop.
"What now is the effort to maintain? The monk keeps firmly
in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as the
mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse
blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with
holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain"
(A. IV, 14).
'elements of effort', are the following 5 qualities: faith,
health, sincerity, energy, and wisdom (M. 85, 90; A. V. 53).
'proficiency', namely, of mental concomitants (káya-páguññatá),
and of consciousness (citta-páguññatá), are 2 mental
phenomena associated with all wholesome consciousness. Cf. Tab.
'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds of overcoming:
(1) overcoming by repression (vikkhambhana-pahána), i.e.
the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances (nívarana,
q.v.) during the absorptions, (2) overcoming by the opposite
(tadanga-pahána), (3) overcoming by destruction (samuccheda-pahána),
(4) overcoming by tranquillization (patipassaddhi-pahána),
(5) overcoming by escape (nissarana-pahána).
"Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the pushing
back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental hindrances (nívarana
q.v), etc., through this or that mental concentration (samádhi,
q.v.), just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water pushes the
" 'Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by opposing
this or that thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor
of knowledge belonging to insight (vipassaná q.v.), just
as a lighted lamp dispels the darkness of the night. In this
way, the personality-belief (sakkáyaditthi, s. ditthi)
is overcome by determining the mental and corporeal phenomena
... the view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into
the conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation of impermanency
... the idea of happiness by contemplation of misery....
"If through the knowledge of the noble path (s. ariyapuggala)
the fetters and other evil things cannot continue any longer,
just like a tree destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming
is called 'overcoming by destruction' " (Vis.M. XXII, 110f.).
When, after the disappearing of the fetters at the entrance
into the paths, the fetters, from the moment of fruition (phala)
onwards, are forever extinct and stilled, such overcoming is
called the 'overcoming by tranquillization'.
"The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the extinction
and Nibbána" (Pts.M. I. 27). (App.).
feeling of: s. vedaná.
'natural or genuine morality', is distinct from those outward
rules of conduct laid down for either laymen or monks. Those
later are the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paññáttisíla).
'direct inducement'; s. paccaya.
'obstacles', is the term for the following things if they
obstruct the monk in the strict practice of a subject of meditation:
a crowded monastery, travelling, relatives, association with
lay folk, gifts, pupils, repairs in the monastery, sickness,
study, magical power. The latter, however, may become an obstacle
only in developing insight (vipassaná, q.v.). See Vis.M.
III, 29ff. - (App.)
the 'vow to wear only robes made from picked-up rags', is
one of the ascetic rules of purification; s. dhutanga.
veramaní: 'abstaining from the killing of living beings',
is the first of the 5 moral rules binding upon all Buddhists;
'advertence to the 5-sense-doors'; s. viññána-kicca.
'five-group existence', is a name for existence in the sensuous
sphere (kámávacara), or in the fine-material sphere (rúpávacara,
s. avacara), since all the 5 groups of existence (khandha,
q.v.) are found there. In the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara,
s. avacara), however, only the 4 mental groups are found,
and in the world of unconscious beings (asaññá-satta,
q.v.) only the one corporeality group. Cf eka-vokára-bhava
and catu-pañca-vokára-bhava; further s. avacara.
- (App.: vokára).
'answering questions'. "There are, o monks, 4 ways
of answering questions: there are questions requiring a direct
answer; questions requiring an explanation; questions to be
answered by counter-questions; questions to be rejected (as
wrongly put)." See D. 33; A. III, 68; A. IV, 42.
'understanding, knowledge, wisdom, insight', comprises a
very wide field. The specific Buddhist knowledge or wisdom,
however, as part of the Noble Eightfold Path (magga, q.v.)
to deliverance, is insight (vipassaná, q.v.), i.e. that
intuitive knowledge which brings about the 4 stages of holiness
and the realization of Nibbána (s. ariyapuggala), and
which consists in the penetration of the impermanency (anicca,
q.v.), misery (dukkha, s. sacca) and impersonality
(anattá) of all forms of existence. Further details, s.
regard to the condition of its arising one distinguishes 3 kinds
of knowledge knowledge based on thinking (cintá-mayá-paññá),
knowledge based on learning (suta-mayá-paññá), knowledge
based on mental development (bhávaná-mayá-paññá) (D.
'Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one has accquired
through one's own thinking, without having learnt it from others.
'Based on learning' is that knowledge which one has heard from
others and thus acquired through learning. 'Based on mental
development' is that knowledge which one has acquired through
mental development in this or that way, and which has reached
the stage of full concentration" (appaná, q.v.)
is one of the 5 mental faculties (s. bala), one of the
3 kinds of training (sikkhá, q.v.), and one of the perfections
(s. páramí) For further details, s. vipassaná,
and the detailed exposition in Vis.M. XIV, 1-32.
-síla: 'prescribed morality', is a name for the disciplinary
rules of the monk or layman prescribed by the Buddha, as distinguished
from natural or genuine morality (pakati-síla; s. síla).
'deliverance through wisdom' (or understanding'), signifies,
according to Com. to A.V, 142, the wisdom associated with the
fruition of holiness (arahatta-phala). In Pug. 31 and
similarly in M. 70, it is said: "A monk may not have reached
in his own person the 8 liberations (=jhána, q.v.), but
through his wisdom the cankers have come to extinction in him.
Such a person is called wisdom-liberated" (paññá-vimutta).
- Com. to Pug.: "He may be one of five persons: either
a practiser of bare insight (sukkha-vipassako, q.v.),
or one who has attained to Holiness after rising from one of
the absorptions." See S. XII, 7().
term is often linked with ceto-vimutti (q.v.), 'deliverance
(Sanskrit prapañca): In doctrinal usage, it signifies
the expansion, differentiation, 'diffuseness' or 'manifoldness'
of the world; and it may also refer to the 'phenomenal world'
in general, and to the mental attitude of 'worldliness'. In
A. IV, 173, it is said: "As far as the field of sixfold
sense-impression extends, so far reaches the world of diffuseness
(or the phenomenal world; papañcassa gati); as far as
the world of diffuseness extends, so far extends the field of
sixfold sense-impression. Through the complete fading away and
cessation of the field of sixfold sense-impression, there comes
about the cessation and the coming-to-rest of the world of diffuseness
(papañca-nirodho papañca-vupasamo)." The opposite
term nippapañca is a name for Nibbána (S. LIII), in the
sense of 'freedom from samsaric diffuseness'. - Dhp. 254: "Mankind
delights in the diffuseness of the world, the Perfect Ones are
free from such diffuseness" (papañcábhiratá pajá, nippapañca
tathágatá). - The 8th of the 'thoughts of a great man' (mahá-purisa-vitakka;
A. VIII, 30) has: "This Dhamma is for one who delights
in non-diffuseness (the unworldly, Nibbána); it is not for him
who delights in worldliness (papañca)." - For the
psychological sense of 'differentiation', see M. 18 (Madhupindika
Sutta): "Whatever man conceives (vitakketi) that
he differentiates (papañceti); and what he differentiates,
by reason thereof ideas and considerations of differentiation
(papañca-saññá-sankhá) arise in him." On this text
and the term papañca, see Dr. Kurt Schmidt in German
Buddhist Writers (WHEEL 74/75) p. 61ff. - See D. 21 (Sakka's
Quest; WHEEL 10, p.
the commentaries, we often find a threefold classification tanhá-,
ditthi-, mána-papañca, which probably means the world's
diffuseness created hy craving, false views and conceit. - See
M. 123; A. IV, 173; A. VI, 14, Sn. 530, 874, 916.
Bhikkhu, in Concept and Reality: An Essay on Papañca and
Papañca-saññá-sankhá (Kandy 1971, Buddhist Publication Society),
suggests that the term refers to man's "tendency towards
proliferation in the realm of concepts" and proposes
a rendering by "conceptual proliferation," which
appears convincing in psychological context, e.g. in two
of the texts quoted above, A. IV, 173 and M. 18. - The threefold
classification of papañca, by way of craving, false
views and conceit, is explained by the author as three aspects,
or instances, of the foremost of delusive conceptualisations,
'adherence', attachment, 'misapprehension', is according
to Vis.M. XXII a name for wrong views; in that sense it occurs
in Dhs. 1174 ff. - See sílabbata-parámása.
(-sacca, -vacana, -desaná): 'truth (or term, exposition)
that is true in the highest (or ultimate) sense', as contrasted
with the 'conventional truth' (vohára-sacca), which is
also called 'commonly accepted truth' (sammuti-sacca;
in Skr: samvrti-satya). The Buddha, in explaining his
doctrine, sometimes used conventional language and sometimes
the philosophical mode of expression which is in accordance
whith undeluded insight into reality. In that ultimate sense,
existence is a mere process of physical and mental phenomena
within which, or beyond which, no real ego-entity nor any abiding
substance can ever be found. Thus, whenever the suttas speak
of man, woman or person, or of the rebirth of a being, this
must not be taken as being valid in the ultimate sense, but
as a mere conventional mode of speech (vohára-vacana).
is one of the main characteristics of the Abhidhamma Pitaka,
in distinction from most of the Sutta Pitaka, that it does not
employ conventional language, but deals only with ultimates,
or realities in the highest sense (paramattha-dhammá). But
also in the Sutta Pitaka there are many expositions in terms
of ultimate language (paramattha-desaná), namely, wherever
these texts deal with the groups (khandha), elements
(dhátu) or sense-bases (áyatana), and their components;
and wherever the 3 characteristics (ti-lakkhana, q.v.)
are applied. The majority of Sutta texts, however, use the conventional
language, as appropriate in a practical or ethical context,
because it "would not be right to say that 'the groups'
(khandha) feel shame, etc."
should be noted, however, that also statements of the Buddha
couched in conventional language, are called 'truth' (vohára-sacca),
being correct on their own level, which does not contradict
the fact that such statements ultimately refer to impermanent
and impersonal processes.
two truths - ultimate and conventional - appear in that form
only in the commentaries, but are implied in a sutta-distinction
of 'explicit (or direct) meaning' (nítattha, q.v.) and
'implicit meaning (to be inferred)' (neyyattha). Further,
the Buddha repeatedly mentioned his reservations when using
conventional speech, e.g. in D. 9: "These are merely names,
expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in
the world, which the Perfect Qne (Tathágata) uses without misapprehending
them." See also S. I. 25.
term paramattha, in the sense here used, occurs in the
first para. of the Kathávatthu, a work of the Abhidhamma Pitaka
(s. Guide, p. 62). (App: vohára).
commentarial discussions on these truths (Com. to D. 9 and M.
5) have not yet been translated in full. On these see K N. Jayatilleke,
Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (London, 1963), pp. 361ff.
Maháyana, the Mádhyamika school has given a prominent place
to the teaching of the two truths.
= páramitá: 'perfection'. Ten qualities leading to Buddhahood:
(1) perfection in giving (or liberality; dána-páramí),
(2) morality (síla-p.), (3) renunciation (nekkhamma-p.),
(4) wisdom (paññá-p.), (5) energy (viriya-p.),
(6) patience (or forbearance; khanti p.), (7) truthfulness
(sacca-p.), (8) resolution (adhitthána-p.), (9)
loving-kindness (mettá-p.) (10) equanimity (upekkhá-p.).
qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta
in his past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated
in many of the Birth Stories (Játaka), of which, however, only
the verses are regarded as canonical. Apart from the latter,
the 10 páramí are mentioned in only two other canonical
works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavamsa (in the
Story of Sumedha) and the Cariyapitaka. A long and methodical
exposition of the páramí is given in the concluding Miscellaneous
Section (pakinnakakathá) of the Com. to Cariyapitaka
Vis.M. IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states
(loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity; s.
brahma-vihára), one may reach these 10 perfections, namely:
the Great Beings (mahá-satta; a synonym often found in
the Maháyana scriptures for Bodhisatta (q.v.), i.e. 'Enlightenment
Being or Being destined for Buddhahood) are concerned about
the welfare of living beings, not tolerating the suffering of
beings, wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness
of beings, and being impartial and just to all beings, therefore
(1) they give alms (dána, q.v.) to all beings so that
they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy
or not. (2) By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality
(síla q.v.). (3) In order to bring morality to perfection,
they train themselves in renunciation (nekkhamma). (4)
In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious
to beings, they purify their wisdom (paññá). (5) For
the sake of the welfare and happiness of others they constantly
exert their energy (viriya). (6) Though having become
heroes through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of
forbearance (khanti) toward s the manifold failings of
beings . (7) Once they have promised to give or do something,
they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca).
(8) With unshakable resolution (adhitthána) they work
for the weal and welfare of beings. (9) With unshakable kindness
(mettá) they are helpful to all. (10) By reason of their
equanimity (upekkhá) they do not expect anything in return"
(Vis.M. IX. 24).
the Maháyana scriptures, where the páramí occupy a much
more prominent place, a partly differing list of six is given:
liberality, morality, patience, energy, meditation. and wisdom.
Ten Jataka Stories (illustrating the 10 páramí),
by I. B. Horner (London 1957, Luzac & Co.); Buddhavamsa
& Cariyapitaka. tr. by I. B. Horner (Minor Anthologies
III, Sacred Books of the Buddhists. PTS). - Narada Thera,
The Buddha & His Teachings, Ch. 41; Parami (BPS) - The
treatise on the perfections from the Com. to Cariyapitaka
has been translated in The Discourse on the All-Embracing
Net of Views (Brahmajala Sutta, with Com.). tr. by Bhikkhu
Bodhi (BPS) .
'heavenly beings with power over the productions of others',
constitute a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous sphere
(káma-loka). Mára (q.v.) is said to be their ruler. Cf.
loka, deva I.
ceto-pariya-ñána: 'penetration of the mind of others', is
one of the higher powers (abhiññá, q.v.).
'limited-space kasina' = space kasina; s. kasina.
'liable to decline'. "Now, someone reaches the attainments
(absorptions: jhána, q.v.) of the fine-material or immaterial
sphere (s. avacara). But he does not reach them according
to his wish, and not without trouble and exertion; and not according
to his wish with regard to place, object and duration, does
he enter them, or rise therefrom. Therefore it is well possible
that such a monk, through negligence, may lose these attainments.
Such a person is said to be liable to decline" (Pug. 5).
'preparatory-moment': s. javana.
'preparatory image'; s. nimitta, kasina.
'preparatory concentration', is the initial and still undeveloped
concentration of mind; s. samádhi.
'full Nibbána', is a synonym for Nibbána; this term, therefore,
does not refer exclusively to the extinction of the 5 groups
of existence at the death of the Holy One, though often applied
to it. Cf. nibbána.
'full understanding', full comprehension. There are 3 kinds
of mundane f.u. (lokiya-p.), namely: full understanding
of the known (ñáta-p.), f.u. as investigating (tírana-p.),
and f.u. as overcoming (pahána-p.) In Vis.M. XX,
3 it is said:
understanding of the known is the knowledge consisting in the
discernment of the specific characteristics of such and such
phenomena, as: 'Corporeality has the characteristic of being
oppressed; feeling has the characteristic of being felt, etc.'
understanding by investigating is that insight-wisdom (vipassaná-paññá;
s. vipassaná), which has the 3 general characteristics
(impermanence, suffering, not-self) as its objects, and which
arises when attributing a general characteristic to (physical
and mental) phenomena, as for instance: 'Corporeality is impermanent,
feeling is impermanent, etc.'
understanding by overcorning is that insight-wisdom which has
the above mentioned general characteristics as its objects,
and arises after overcoming the idea of permanence, etc."
the 4 'elements of the effort for purity', are: effort for
purity of morality (síla-parisuddhi-padhániyanga), for
purity of mind (citta), of view (ditthi), of deliverance
(vimutti). Cf. A. IV, 194. - Another 9 factors are enumerated
in D. 34, namely the 7 'stages of purification (s. visuddhi)
and the effort for purity of (higher) knowledge (vijjá-p.-p.)
and of deliverance (vimutti-p.-p.).
'morality consisting in purity', is fourfold: restraint
with regard to the monks' Disciplinary Code, sense restraint,
purity of livelihood, morality with regard to the monks' 4 requisites;
for details, s. síla.
and paritta-subha are 2 classes of heavenly beings
of the fine-material sphere; s. deva (II).
'learning the doctrine', the 'wording of the doctrine'.
In the 'progress of the disciple' (q.v.), 3 stages may be distinguished:
theory, practice, realization, i.e. (1) learning the wording
of the doctrine (pariyatti), (2) practising it (patipatti),
(3) penetrating it (pativedha) and realising its goal.
'sensitive corporeality', is a name for the 5 physical sense-organs
responding to sense-stimuli. Cf. áyatana.
'tranquillity, as factor of enlightenment', consists in
tranquillity of mental factors (káya-passaddhi) and tranquillity
of consciousness (citta-passaddhi). Cf. bojjhanga;
further Tab. II.
robes, the practice of wearing: is one of the ascetic rules
of purification (dhutanga, q.v.).
and not-path, the knowledge and vision regarding:
s. visuddhi (V).
'earth-element'. or 'solid element'. It is cognizable through
the sensations of pressure, touch, cold, heat. pain, etc. -
About the 4 elements. s. dhátu, khandha (I. A.).
'earth-kasina' (s. kasina).
magga-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
the 4 kinds of: s. visuddhi (VII).
(fruition): phala (q.v.).
s. nimitta, kasina, samádhi.
the 'analytical knowledge of ready wit': s. patisambhidá.
'dependent origination', is the doctrine of the conditionality
of all physical and psychical phenomena, a doctrine which, together
with that of impersonality (anattá q.v.), forms the indispensable
condition for the real understanding and realization of the
teaching of the Buddha. It shows the conditionality and dependent
nature of that uninterrupted flux of manifold physical and psychical
phenomena of existence conventionally called the ego, or man,
or animal, etc.
the doctrine of impersonality, or anattá, proceeds analytically,
by splitting existence up into the ultimate constituent parts,
into mere empty, unsubstantial phenomena or elements, the doctrine
of dependent origination, on the other hand, proceeds synthetically,
by showing that all these phenomena are, in some way or other,
conditionally related with each other. In fact, the entire Abhidhamma
Pitaka, as a whole, treats really of nothing but just these
two doctrines: phenomenality - implying impersonality and conditionality
of all existence. The former or analytical method is applied
in Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka; the
latter or synthetical method, in Patthána, the last book of
the Abhidhamma Pitaka. For a synopsis of these two works, s.
Guide I and VII.
this subject has been very frequently treated by Western authors,
by far most of them have completely misunderstood the true meaning
and purpose of the doctrine of dependent origination, and even
the 12 terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.
formula of dependent origination runs as follows:
Avijiá-paccayá sankhárá: "Through ignorance are conditioned
the sankháras," i.e. the rebirth-producing volitions
(cetaná), or 'karma-formations' .
Sankhára-paccayá viññánam: "Through the karma-formations
(in the past life) is conditioned consciousness (in the present
Viññána-paccayá náma-rúpam: "Through consciousness
are conditioned the mental and physical phenomena (náma-rúpa),"
i.e. that which makes up our so-called individual existence.
Náma-rúpa-paccayá saláyatanam: "Through the mental
and physical phenomena are conditioned the 6 bases,"
i.e. the 5 physical sense-organs, and consciousness as the
Saláyatana-paccayá phasso: "Through the six bases
is conditioned the (sensorial mental) impression."
Phassa-paccayá vedaná: "Through the impression is
Vedaná-paccayá tanhá: "Through feeling is conditioned
Tanhá-paccayá upádánam: "Through craving is conditioned
Upádána-paccayá bhavo: "Through clinging is conditioned
the process of becoming," consisting in the active and
the passive life process, i.e. the rebirth-producing karma-process
(kamma-bhava) and, as its result, the rebirth-process
Bhava-paccayá játi: "Through the (rebirth-producing
karma-) process of becoming is conditioned rebirth."
Játi-paccayá jarámaranam, etc.: "Through rebirth
are conditioned old age and death (sorrow, lamentation, pain,
grief and despair). Thus arises this whole mass of suffering
again in the future."
following diagram shows the relationship of dependence between
three successive lives:
Mind & Matter
Six Bases (áyatana)
Process of Becoming (bhava)
Old Age and Death (jará-marana)
taking up the study of the following exposition, it is suggested
that the reader first goes thoroughly through the article on
the 24 conditions (s. paccaya). For a thorough understanding
of the paticcasamuppáda he should know the main modes
of conditioning, as decisive support, co-nascence, pre-nascence,
a closer study of the subject should be consulted: Vis.M. XVII;
Fund. III; Guide (Ch. VII and Appendix); Dependent Origination,
by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 15); The Significance of Dependent
Origination (WHEEL 140).
"Through ignorance are conditioned the karma-formations"
(avijjá-paccayá sankhárá), i.e. all wholesome and unwholesome
actions (karma, q.v.) of body, speech and mind, are conditioned
through ignorance. By 'karma-formations' are meant karmically
wholesome and unwholesome volitions (cetaná), or volitional
activities, in short karma (q.v., and Fund. II).
view of the many misconceptions current in the West, it is necessary
to repeat here that karma (q.v.), as a technical term, never
signifies anything but moral or immoral action, i.e. the above
mentioned volitional activities, or karma-formations, as either
causing results in the present life or being the causes of future
destiny and rebirth. Thus karma, as a philosophical term, never
means the result of action, as often wrongly conceived by Western
in what way are the karma-formations conditioned through ignorance?
As concerns the unwholesome karmaformations associated with
greed, hate or delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), these are
always and in all circumstances, conditioned through the simultaneous
ignorance inseparably associated therewith. Thus, ignorance
is for the unwholesome karma-formations a condition by way of
conascence (sahajáta-paccaya), association (sampayutta-paccaya),
presence (atthi-paccaya), etc. Ignorance further may
be for them a condition by way of decisive support or inducement
(upanissaya-paccaya), if, for instance, ignorance coupled
with greed induces a man to commit evil deeds, such as killing,
stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, etc. In these cases,
therefore, ignorance is a 'natural decisive suppport' or 'direct
inducement' (pakati-upanissaya-paccaya). It also may
become an indirect inducement, by way of object (árammanúpanissaya-paccaya)
of our thinking. This takes place, if, for example, someone
remembers a former state of ignorance combined with sensual
enjoyment, and in doing so karmically unwholesome states spring
up, such as sensual desire, grief, etc.
the wholesome (kusala) karma-formations, ignorance can
only be a condition by way of decisive support (upanissaya),
never by way of co-nascence (sahajáta), etc., since wholesome
consciousness at that very moment, of course, cannot be associated
with any unwholesome phenomenon, such as ignorance. Ignorance
is a 'natural decisive support' or 'direct inducement' (pakatupanissaya),
for example, if, induced by ignorance and vanity, one exerts
oneself to attain the absorptions, and thus finally, through
perseverance, reaches these wholesome states of mind. Ignorance
may also be for wholesome karma-formations a 'decisive support'
or 'inducement by way of object' (árammanúpanissaya),
if, for example, one refleets on ignorance as the root of all
misery in the world, and thus finally attains insight and entrance
into one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness.
ignorance, s. avijjá; for karma-formations, s. sankhára.
"Through the karma-formations is conditioned consciousness"
(sankhára-paccayá viññánam). This proposition teaches
that the wholesome and unwholesome karma-formations are the
causes of future rebirth in an appropriate sphere (gati).
The karma-formations of the previous life condition the budding
in a new mother's womb of a fresh psycho-physical aggregation
of the 5 groups of existence (s. khandha), which here
are represented by consciousness (viññána). All such
karma-resultant (vipáka) consciousness, however, such
as eye-consciousness (seeing), etc., as well as all the mental
phenomena associated therewith (feeling, etc.), are karmically
neutral. It should be understood that already from the very
first moment of conception in the mother's womb, this karma
resultant eonsciousness of the embryonic being is functioning.
Dr. Paul Dahlke's misconception of the paticcasamuppáda
as "one single karmical moment of personal experience,"
and of the 'simultaneity' of all the 12 links of this formula,
I should like to state here distinctly that the interpretation
of the p. given here as comprising 3 successive lives
not only agrees with all the different schools of Buddhism and
all the ancient commentaries, but also is fully identical with
the explanations given already in the canonical suttas. Thus,
for example, it is said verbatim in Nidána-Samyutta (S. XII,
51): "Once ignorance (1) and clinging (9) are extinguished,
neither karmically meritorious, nor demeritorious, nor imperturbable
karma-formations (2=10) are produced, and thus no consciousness
(3=11) will spring up again in a new mother's womb." And
further: "For, if consciousness were not to appear in the
mother's womb, would in that case mentality and corporeality
(4) arise?" Cf. above diagram.
purpose of the Buddha in teaching the p. was to show
to suffering mankind how, depending on ignorance and delusion,
this present existence and suffering has come about, and how
through extinction of ignorance, and of the craving and clinging
conditioned thereby, no more rebirth will follow, and thus the
standstill of the process of existence will have been realized
and therewith the extinction of all suffering.
"Through consciousness are conditioned corporeality and
mentality" (viññána-paccayá náma-rúpani). This proposition
implies that without consciousness there ean be no mental and
physical process of existence. By mentality (náma) is
here to be understood the karma-resultant (vipáka) mental
phenomena, such as feeling (vedaná), perception (saññá),
volition (cetaná: non-karmical volition is here meant),
consciousness-impression (phassa), advertence (manasikára)
(M. 9; S. XII, 2). For the basic 7 mental phenomena inseparably
associated with every state of consciousness, s. náma.
By corporeality (rúpa) is meant the 4 physical elements
(s. dhátu) and the corporeality dependent thereon (s.
is always conditioned through consciousness; i.e. consciousness
(viññána) is for mentality (náma) a condition
by way of conascence (sahajáta), mutuality (aññamañña),
association (sampayutta), etc., since the 4 mental groups
at all times form an inseparable unit.
(viññána) is for corporeality (rúpa) a condition
by way of co-nascence only at the moment of conception, thereafter
a condition by way of post-nascence (pacchájáta-paccaya;
paccaya 11) and nutriment (áhára), i.e. as a support.
Just as the repeatedly arising hunger is a condition and support
for the pre-arisen body, so is the conseiousness arising afterwards
a condition and support for the maintenance of this pre-arisen
"Through mentality and corporeality are conditioned the
6 bases (náma-rúpa paccayá saláyatanam). The 6 bases
are a name for the 5 physical sense-organs and, as 6th, the
mind-base (manáyatana), i.e. consciousness.
(náma; s. 3) is for the 5 physical bases (áyatana),
or sense-organs, a condition by way of post-nascence. Cf.
end of 3.
(náma), i.e. feeling. etc., is for the 6th base, or consciousness
- as being always inseparably associated therewith a condition
by way of co-nascencc. etc.
(rúpa), here the 4 elements, are for the 5 physical bases
(áyatana), or sense-organs, a condition by way of support
(rúpa), here the 5 physical sense-organs, are for the
6th base (áyatana), i.e. consciousness, a condition by
way of support and pre-nascence (purejáta-paccaya).
"Through the 6 bases is conditioned the (sensorial and
mental) impression" (saláyatana-paccayá phasso),
for without the 5 physical bases, or sense-organs, there can
be no sense-impressions; and without the 6th base, or consciousness,
there can be no mental impression.
the 5 physical bases, eye, etc., are for the corresponding 5
sense-impressions (visual impression, etc.) a condition by way
of support (nissaya) and pre-nascence (purejáta),
whereas the 6th, the mind-base (consciousness), is for the mental
impression a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality,
"Through impression is conditioned feeling" (phassa-paccayá
vedaná), i.e. the sensorial and the mental impressions are
for the feeling associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascence,
association, mutuality, etc.
"Through feeling is conditioned craving" (vedaná-paccayá
tanhá). Any (karma-resultant) feeling, whether agreeable,
disagreeable or neutral, bodily or mental, past or expected,
may become for craving a condition of decisive support by way
of object (árammanúpanissaya). Even physically and mentally
painful feeling may, through the desire to be released therefrom,
become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of
"Through craving is conditioned clinging" (tanhá-paccayá
upádánam). 'Clinging' is explained as an intensified form
of craving. It is of 4 kinds: (1) clinging to sensuality, (2)
to erroneous views, (3) to rules and ritual, (4) to personality-belief.
Sensuous craving is to (1) a condition of natural decisive support
(pakatupanissaya). For (2-4), craving is a condition
by way of co-nascence, mutuality, root (hetu), etc. It
also may be a condition of natural decisive support. For example,
through craving for heavenly rebirth, etc. people often may
be induced to cling to certain rules and rituals, with the hope
of reaching thereby the object of their desires.
"Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming"
(upádána-paccayá bhavo), i.e. the wholesome and unwholesome
active karma-process of becoming (kamma-bhava), as well as the
karma-resultant (vipáka) passive process, the so-called
'rebirth-process' (upapatti-bhava). The karma-process
(kammabhava) comprises the 5 karmical causes: ignorance,
karma-formations, craving, clinging, karma-process (s. 1, 2,
8, 9, 10, of the diagram); the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava)
comprises the 5 karma-results (s. 3-7 of the diagram).
karma-process is here, correctly speaking, a collective name
for generative karmic volition (kamma-cetaná) and all
the mental phenomena associated therewith, whilst the 2nd link
(karma-formations) designates only karmic volition (s. áyúhana).
Both, however, i.e. the 2nd and 10th proposition, practically
state one and the same thing, namely, that karma is the cause
of rebirth, as we shall see under 10.
(upádána) may be an inducement of decisive support (upanissaya)
to many kinds of wholesome and unwholesome karma. Sensuous clinging
(kámúpádána), i.e. clinging to sensuous objects, for
example, may be a direct inducement to murder, theft, unlawful
intercourse with the other sex, evil words and thoughts, etc.
Clinging to rules and ritual (sílabbatúpádána) may lead
to self-complacency, fanaticism, cruelty, etc. Clinging is also
for the evil karma associated therewith, a condition by way
of co-nascence, association, etc.
"Through the process of becoming is conditioned rebirth"
(bhava-paccayá játi), i.e. through the wholesome and
unwholesome karma-process (kamma-bhava) is conditioned
the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava). The 2nd and 10th
propositions, as already pointed out, practically teach one
and the same thing, namely, that karma is the cause of rebirth;
in other words, that the karmical volition (cetaná) is
the seed out of which springs the new life, just as from the
mango-seed is generated the new mango-tree.
the 5 karmical causes (ignorance, etc.) of the past birth are
the condition for the karma-results of the present birth; and
the 5 karmical causes of the present birth are the condition
for the 5 karma-results of the next birth (s. diagram). As it
is said in Vis.M. XVII:
causes were there in the past,
fruits we find in present life;
causes do we now produce,
fruits we reap in future life."
just as in this process of continually changing mental and bodily
phenomena, nothing can be found that would pass from one moment
to the next moment, so also there is no enduring entity, ego,
or personality, within this process of existence that would
transmigrate from one life to the next (s. náma-rúpa, anattá,
patisandhi, khandha). "No being and no living soul
passed from the former life to this life, and yet this present
embryo could not have entered into existence without the preceding
causes" (Vis.M. XVII). "Many things may serve to illustrate
this fact, as for example the echo, the light of a lamp, the
impression of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror"
is in the dark with regard to the conditionally arisen things,
and does not understand that karma originates from ignorance,
etc., he thinks that it must be his ego that knows or does not
know, acts and causes to act, and that arises at rebirth. Or
he thinks that the atoms, or a creator, with the help of this
embryonic process, must have formed this body, or that it is
the ego endowed with faculties that has impressions, feels,
desires, clings, continues and enters again into existence in
a new birth. Or he thinks that all beings have been born through
fate, or fortuitously" (Vis.M. XVII).
on hearing that Buddhism teaches that everything whatever in
the world is determined by conditions some might come to the
conclusion that Buddhism teaches some sort of fatalism, and
that man has no free will, or that will is not free.
problem 'whether man has a free will' does not exist for, the
Buddhist, since he knows that, apart from these everchanging
mental and physical phenomena, no such entity as 'man' can be
found, and that 'man' is merely a name not relating to any reality.
And the question, 'whether will is free', must be rejected for
the reason that 'will', or volition, is a mental phenomenon
flashing forth only for a moment, and that as such it had not
any existence at the preceding moment. For of a thing which
is not, or is not yet, one cannot, properly speaking, ask whether
it is free or unfree. The only admissible question would be
whether the arising of 'will' is independent of conditions,
or whether it is conditioned. But the same question would equally
apply also to all the other mental phenomena, as well as to
all physical phenomena, in other words: to everything and every
occurrence whatever. And the answer would be: whether will arises,
or whether feeling arises, or whether any other mental or any
physical phenomenon arises, the arising of anything whatsoever
is dependent on conditions, and without conditions nothing ever
can arise or enter into existence.
to Buddhism, everything mental or physical happens in accordance
with laws and conditions; and if it were otherwise, chaos and
blind chance would reign. But such a thing is impossible and
contradicts all laws of thinking. Cf. Fund. III (end).
"Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death"
(játipaccayá jará-maranam). Without birth there can be
no old age and death, no suffering and misery. Thus rebirth
is to old age and death, etc. a condition by way of decisive
Buddha has said (D. 15): "Profound, Ananda. is this dependent
origination, and profound does it appear. It is through not
understanding, not penetrating, this law that this world resembles
a tangled ball of thread, a bird's nest, a thicket of sedge
or reed, and that man does not escape from the lower states
of existence, from the course of woe and perdition, suffering
from the round of rebirth." And further (M. 28): 'Whoso
understands the dependent origination understands the Dhamma;
and whoso understands the Dhamma understands the dependent origination."
or forbearance (khanti): one of the 10 perfections
- 1. In an ethical sense, it means: 'repugnance', grudge,
resentment, anger, and is a synonym of vyápáda, 'ill-will'
(s. nívarana) and dosa, 'hate' (s. múla).
It is one of the proclivities (anusaya, q.v.).
'(Sense-) reaction'. Applied to five-sense cognition, p.
occurs in the following contexts:
as patigha-saññá, 'perception of sense-reaction', said
to be absent in the immaterial absorptions (s. jhána
5). Alternative renderings: resistance-perception, reflex-perception;
as patigha-samphassa, '(mental) impression caused by
5fold sensorial reaction' (D. 15); s. phassa;
as sappatigha-rúpa, 'reacting corporeality', and appatigha,
'not reacting', which is an Abhidhammic classification of corporeality,
occurring in Dhs. 659, 1050. Sappatigha are called the
physical sense-organs as reacting (or responding) to sense stimuli;
and also the physical sense-objects as impinging (or making
an impact) on the sense-organs. All other corporeality is appatigha,
non-reacting and non-impinging. These 2 terms have been variously
rendered as resistant and not, responding and not, with and
'miracle', marvel. Three marvels are ascribed to the Buddha:
the marvel of magic (iddhi-p.), the marvel of mind-reading
(ádesaná-p.) and the marvel of instruction (anusásaní-p.).
In D. 11, the Buddha says that he sees danger in the first two
and therefore abhors them. In A. III, 61, the 'marvel of instruction'
is called the one 'more noble and sublime'. For iddhi-pátiháriya,
see D. 25. See also yamakapátiháriya.
'Disciplinary Code', is the name of the code of monk's rules,
which on all full-moon and new moon days is recited before the
assembled community of fully ordained monks (bhikkhu).
The Patimokkha, Romanized Páli text and transl. by Ñánamoli
Thera (Bangkok 1966, Mahámakut Buddhist Bookshop).
'morality consisting in restraint with regard to the Disciplinary
Code' (Pátimokkha, s. prec.). For details, s. síla.
'contemplation on abandonment', is one of the 18 kinds of
insight (vipassaná q.v.). Further cf. the 16th exercise
of anapana-sati (q.v.).
1. 'Road', 'path'; for instance in dukkhanirodha-gáminí-patipadá,
'the road leading to the extinction of suffering' (= 4th Noble
Truth); majjhima-patipadá, 'the Middle Way'.
'Progress' (see also the foll. article). There are 4 modes of
progress to deliverance: (1) painful progress with slow comprehension
(dukkhá patipadá dandhábhiññá), (2) painful progress
with quick comprehension, (3) pleasant progress with slow comprehension,
(4) pleasant progress with quick comprehension. In A. IV, 162
it is said:
"Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, excessive
hate, excessive delusion, and thereby he often feels pain and
sorrow; and also the 5 mental faculties, as faith, energy, mindfulness,
concentration and wisdom (s. indriya 15-19) are dull
in him; and by reason thereof he reaches only slowly the immediacy
(ánantariya, q.v) to the cessation of all cankers.
Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, etc., but the
5 mental faculties are sharp in him and by reason thereof he
reaches quickly the immediacy to the cessation of all cankers
"Some person possesses by nature no excessive greed, etc.,
but the 5 mental faculties are dull in him, and by reason thereof
he reaches slowly the immediacy to the cessation of all cankers
'Some person possessess by nature no excessive greed, etc.,
and the mental faculties are sharp in him, and by reason thereof
he reaches quickly the immediacy to the cessation of all cankers
A. IV, 162, 163, 166-169; Dhs. 176ff; Atthasálini Tr. I,
243; 11, 291, 317.
'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'
forms the 6th stage of purification (visuddhi, q.v.).
'path-attainer', is he who had reached one of the 4 supermundane
paths of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). - (App.)
practice, or 'pursuance' of the teaching, as distinguished
from the mere theoretical knowledge of its wording (pariyatti,
'overcoming (of defilements) by tranquillization' (s. pahána).
'analytical knowledge' or 'discrimination', is of 4 kinds:
analytical knowledge of the true meaning (attha-patisambhidá),
of the law (dhamma-patisambhidá), of language (nirutti-patisambhidá),
of ready wit (patibhána-patisambhidá).
an alternative rendering of the fourth term (patibhána),
Bhikkhu Ñánamoli proposes: perspicuity (in expression and
The analytical knowledge of the meaning (attha-p.)
is the knowledge with regard to the sense.
The analytical knowledge of the law (dhamma-p.) is
the knowledge with regard to the law.
The analytical knowledge of language (nirutti-p.) is
the knowledge of the language with regard to those former
The analytical knowledge of ready-wit (patibhána-p.) is
the knowledge about the (former 3) kinds of knowledge"
attha (Sanskrit artha, Ö ar, to reach; result, meaning,
purpose, true substance) designates, in short, the fruit (phala)
of a cause (hetu); for since the fruit of a cause results
from adhering to the cause, and is reached and effected thereby,
therefore it is called result (attha). In particular,
however, 5 things are considered as attha, namely: everything
dependent on conditions, Nibbána, the meaning of words, karma-result,
and functional consciousness. When anyone reflects on that meaning
any knowledge of his, falling within the category concerned
with meaning (or result), is the 'analytical knowledge' of meaning.
dhamma (Sanskrit dharma, Ö dhar,
to bear; bearer, condition, law, phenomenon, thing) is, in short,
a name for condition (paccaya).... In particular, however,
5 things are considered as dhamma, namely: every cause
(hetu) producing a result, the noble path, the spoken
word, the karmically wholesome, the karmically unwholesome.
When anyone reflects on that law, any knowledge of his, falling
within the category concerned with law (or cause), is the 'analytical
knowledge' of the law.
Vibh. it is further said: 'The knowledge of suffering is the
'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning (attha-patisambhidá),
the knowledge of its origin is the 'analytical knowledge'
of the law (dhamma-patisambhidá). The knowledge of the
cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma-patisambhidá),
the knowledge of the result of the cause is the 'analytical
knowledge' of the true meaning (attha-patisambhidá)...
That the monk knows the law, the sunas etc. this is called the
'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma-patisambhidá);
if however, he understands the meaning of this or that speech...
it is called the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning
" 'The knowledge of the language concerning those things'
means: the language corresponding to reality, and the unfailing
mode of expression concerning the true meaning and the law.
" 'Knowledge about the kinds of knowledges' is that knowledge
which has all knowledges as object and considers them. Or, the
analytical knowledge of ready wit (patibhána-patisambhidá)
means the knowledge of the above mentioned 3 kinds of knowledge,
in all their details, with their objects, functions, etc."
the 7 qualities leading to the attainment of the 4 'analytical
knowledge' , s. A. VII, 37 - See Vis.M. XIV, 21ff; Vibh. XV;
Pts.M. Patisambhidá Kathá.
lit. 'reunion, relinking', i.e. rebirth, is one of the 14
functions of consciousness (viññána-kicca, q.v.). It
is a karma-resultant type of consciousness and arises at the
moment of conception i.e. with the forming of new life in the
mother's womb. Immediately afterwards it sinks into the subconscious
stream of existence (bhavangasota, q.v.), and conditioned
thereby ever and ever again corresponding states of subconsciousness
arise. Thus it is really rebirth-consciousness that determines
the latent character of a person.
has this (rebirth-) consciousness transmigrated from the previous
existence to this present existence, nor did it arise without
such conditions, as karma, karma-formations, propensity, object,
etc. That this consciousness has not come from the previous
existence to this present existence, yet that it has come into
existence by means of conditions included in the previous existence,
such as karma (q.v.), etc., this fact may be illustrated by
various things, such as the echo, the light of a lamp, the impression
of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror. For just as the
resounding of the echo is conditioned by a sound, etc., and
nowhere a transmigration of sound has taken place, just so it
is with this consciousness. Further it is said: 'In this continuous
process, no sameness and no otherness can be found.' For if
there were full identity (between the different stages), then
also milk never could turn into curd. And if there were a complete
otherness, then curd could never come from milk.... If in a
continuity of existence any karma-result takes place, then this
karma-result neither belongs to any other being, nor does it
come from any other (kamma), because absolute sameness and otherness
are excluded here" (Vis, XVII 164ff).
Mil. it is said:
Venerable Nágasena, the one who is reborn, is he the same as
the one who has died, or is he another?"
the same, nor another" (na ca so na ca añño).
me an example."
do you think, o King: are you now, as a grown-up person, the
same that you had been as a little, young and tender babe? "
Venerable Sir. Another person was the little, young and tender
babe, but quite a different person am I now as a grown-up man
. " . . .
Is perhaps in the first watch of the night one lamp burning,
another one in the middle watch, and again another one in the
Venerable Sir. The light during the whole night depends on one
and the same lamp.''
so, o King, is the chain of phenomena linked together. One phenomenon
arises, another vanishes, yet all are linked together, one after
the other, without interruption. In this way one reaches the
final state of consciousnes neither as the same person. nor
as another person.''
to the nature of their rebirth consciousness, beings divide
into the following 3 groups:
ahetu-patisandhika: a 'being reborn without rootconditions',
is a being whose consciousness at the moment of rebirth was
not accompanied by any of the 3 noble rootconditions, viz. greedlessness,
hatelessness, undeludedness (s. múla), i.e. selflessness,
kindness, intelligence. Such beings are found in the 4 lower
worlds (apáya, q.v.), in which case the function of rebirth
is exercised by the class of consciousness listed in Tab. I
as No. 56. But if such beings are born in the sensuous sphere
as humans, they will be crippled, blind, deaf, mentally deficient,
etc. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I, No. 41)
dvihetu (or duhetu)-patisandhika: a 'being reborn
with only 2 (noble) root-conditions', i.e. greedlessness and
hatelessness. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I, Nos. 44, 45,
48 or 49.)
tihetu-patisandhika: a 'being reborn with 3 (noble) rootconditions'.
Such a being can be found only among men. (Rebirth-consciousness
= Tab. 1, Nos. 42, 43, 46, or 47) and higher heavenly beings.
these 3 types of rebirth, See Atthasálini Tr. 11, 354 -
379. (App.: patisandhika).
the suttas, the terms for rebirth are chiefly punabbhava
(q.v.), 'renewed existence', and abhinibbatti 'arising';
or both combined as punabbhavábhinibbatti. - (App.: patisandhi).
Vis.M. XVII, 133f, 164f, 189f, 289f; Vis.M. XIX, 22f. -
Karma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka Thera (WHEEL 9). - The
Case for Rebirth, by Francis Story (WHEEL 12/13). - Survival
and Karma in Buddhist Perspective, by K. N. Jayatilleke
(WHEEL 141/143). - Rebirth Explained, by V. F. Gunaratna
and bhávaná-bala: 'power of reflection', and 'power
of mental development'. About these 2 powers it is said in A.
o monks, is the power of reflection? If, o monks, someone thinks
thus: 'Bad conduct in deeds, words and thoughts verily bears
bad fruits both in this life, as well as in the next life',
and in consequence of this consideration, he abandons bad conduct
in deeds, words and thoughts, follows good conduct, and keeps
his heart pure, this, o monks, is the power of reflection.
o monks, is the power of mental development? If, o monks, a
monk develops the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga,
q.v.), bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending
in deliverance, namely: mindfulness, investigating of the law,
energy, rapture, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity,
this, o monks, is the power of mental development."
'knowledge consisting in reflective contemplation";
is one of the 9 knowledges constituting the 'purification by
knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (patipadá-ñánadassanavisuddhi;
s. visuddhi VI), and one of the 18 chief kinds of insight
(mahávipassaná; s. vipassaná).
'penetration', signifies the realization of the truth of
the Dhamma, as distinguished from the mere acquisition of its
wording (pariyatti), or the practice (patipatti)
of it, in other words, realization as distinguished from theory
and practice. Cf. pariyatti.
the 'exercise of the bowl-eater', is one of the 13 ascetic
purification-exercises (dhutanga, q.v.), consisting in
the vow of using only the alms-bowl for eating, and the rejection
of any other vessel.
lit. 'giving of the acquired', i.e. 'transference of merit.'
Though in the older texts very seldom mentioned (e.g. A VII,
50), it is, however, a widespread custom in all Buddhist countries.
It is presumed that moral merit, especially that acquired through
giving alms, can be transferred to others, apparently for the
reason that one's own good deeds may become to others, especially
to departed relatives and friends reborn in the ghost realm,
an inducement to a happy and morally wholesome state of mind.
Transference of merit is advocated (though without mentioning
the term patti-dána) in the Tirokudda Sutta (Khp. and
Petavatthu) and its Com. (Khp. Tr.). It is one of the ten 'bases
of meritorious action' (puññakiriyavatthu, q.v.), called
there pattánuppadána. (App.).
'The Doctrine of Reversible Merit by F. L. Woodward. Buddhist
Review (London), Vol. I (1914), p. 38.
s. pativedha, pariyatti. - For the power of penetrating
(vipphára) knowledge and concentration, s. iddhi.
- For morality combined with penetration (nibbedha), s.
hána-bhágiya-síla, etc. - For penetration (pariya)
of the mind of others, s. abhiññá.
the 10: páramí (q.v.).
one, the: tathágata (q.v.).
and avoidance: cáritta-váritta (q.v.).
idea of: s. vipallása.
s. sakkáya. For personality-belief, s. sakkáya
ditthi, ditthi, attá, satta, puggala, vipallása.
the 4: vipallása (q.v.).
(Sanskrit preta): lit. 'departed spirit', ghost;
'ghost realm'; s. loka.
lit. 'fruit'. - 1. result, effect (often together with hetu,
cause ); 2. benefit (e.g. in Sámañña-phala Sutta, 'The Results,
or Benefits, of Recluseship'; D. 2).
'path-result', or 'fruition', it donotes those moments of supermundane
consciousness which flash forth immediately after the moment
of path-consciousness (s. ariya-puggala) and which, till
the attainment of the next higher path, may during the practice
of insight (vipassaná, q.v.) still recur innumerable
times. If thus repeated, they are called the 'attainment of
fruition (phalasamápatti), which is explained in detail
in Vis.M. XXIII.
(fr. phusati, to touch): 'sense-impression', contact.
The term samphassa is used in compounds, e.g. in the
following: '"T'here are 6 classes of sense-impression:
visual impression (cakkhu-samphassa), impressions of
hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily (tactile) impression and
mental impression" (M. 9). A twofold division occurs in
D. 15: patigha (q.v.) -samphassa, impression by
sensorial reaction', and adhivacana-samphassa, verbal
(or conceptual, i.e. mental) impression'.
does not signify physical impact, but is one of the 7 constant
mental concomitants of consciousness (cetasika) and belongs
to the group of mental formations (sankhára-kkhandha). In
lists of both these categories it is generally mentioned first
(e.g. Dhs. 1: M. 9), due to its fundamental position in the
cognitive process In M. 18 it is thus defined: "Dependent
on the eye and the forms, eye-consciousness arises; the coming-together
of the three is sense-impression" (similarly stated in
the case of the other 5 senses, including mind). In the dependent
origination, it is conditioned by the six sense-bases and is
a conditioning factor of feeling (s. paticca-samuppáda 5,
6). Its relation to mind-and-body (náma-rúpa) is described
in D. 15, and its influence on feeling and wrong views, in D.
1 (at the end). - It is one of the 4 nutriments (áhára,
q.v.), and the first factor in the pentad of sense-impression
(phassa-pañcamaka), together with feeling, perception,
volition and consciousness (see Abh. St., p. 47ff ).
a key function in the mind's contact with the world of objects
and being a potential source of defilements, sense-impression
is an important subject for reflective insight contemplation
as succinctly formulated in many verses of the Sn.: 736/7, 778,
851, 870/72, 923.
rags, wearing robes made from: s. dhutanga.
The 'practice of going for alms', is one of the 13 ascetic
purification-exercises (s. dhutanga).
'yellow-kasina', is one of the kasina-exercises;
rapture, enthusiasm (rendered also by joy, happiness); interest
it is one of the mental factors or concomitants (cetasika)
and belongs to the group of mental formations (sankhára-kkhandha).
As, in sutta texts, it is often linked in a compound word.
with 'gladness' (pámojja) or 'happiness' (sukha),
some Western translations have wrongly taken it as a synonym
of these two terms. Píti, however, is not a feeling or a sensation,
and hence does not belong to the feeling-group (vedaná-kkhandha),
but may be described psychologically as 'joyful interest'.
As such it may be associated with wholesome as well as with
unwholesome and neutral states of consciousness.
high degree of rapture is characteristic of certain stages in
meditative concentration, in insight practice (vipassaná)
as well as in the first two absorptions (jhána, q.v.).
In the latter it appears as one of the factors of absorption
(jhánanga; s. jhána) and is strongest in the 2nd
absorption. Five degrees of intensity in meditative rapture
are described in Vis.M. IV. 94ff. It is one of the factors of
enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).
of existence, the 3: s. avacara.
idea of: s. vipallása, subhanimitta.
pacchájáta-paccaya, one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
the 4 bodily: iriyápatha (q.v.).
the 5 spiritual: s. bala. - For the 6 higher p.,
s. abhiññna. For the 10 p. of a Buddha, s. dasabala.
- For the 4 roads to p., s. iddhipáda. For magical
p., s. iddhi.
For theory, practice and realization, s. pariyatti.
and pre-nascence: adhipati, purejáta, are 2 of the
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
concentration (and preparatory image, etc.): s. samádhi,
moral rules: paññatti-síla (q.v.).
corporeality: nipphanna-rúpa (q.v.).
(or regenerative) karma; s. karma.
(of mental factors and consciousness): páguññatá
s. patipadá, abhabbagamana - p. in morality, etc.,
s. hánabhágiya, etc. - Purification by knowledge and
vision of path-progress, s. visuddhi (VI). - p. of
the disciple, s. foll.
of the disciple, Gradual development of the Eightfold Path
in the: In many suttas occurs an identical passage that outlines
the gradual course of development in the progress of the disciple.
There it is shown how this development takes place gradually,
and in conformity with laws, from the very first hearing of
the doctrine, and from germinating faith and dim comprehension,
up to the final realization of deliverance.
hearing the law, he is filled with confidence, and he thinks:
'Full of hindrances is household life, a refuse heap; but the
homeless life (of a monk) is like the open air. Not easy is
it, when one lives at home, to fulfill in all points the rules
of the holy life. How if now I were to cut off hair and beard,
put on the yellow robe, and go forth from home to the homeless
life?' And after a short time, having given up his possessions,
great or little, having forsaken a circle of relations, small
or large, he cuts off hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe,
and goes forth from home to the homeless life.
thus left the world, he fulfills the rules of the monks. He
avoids the killing of living beings and abstains from it; without
stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is desirous
of the welfare of all living beings. He avoids stealing ...
avoids unchastity ... avoids lying ... tale-bearing ... harsh
language ... vain talk.
abstains from destroying vegetal germs and plants; eats only
at one time of the day; keeps aloof from dance, song, music
and the visiting of shows; rejects floral adornment, perfumes,
ointment, as well as any other kind of adornment and embellishment.
High and gorgeous beds he does not use. Gold and silver he does
not accept ... keeps aloof from buying and selling things ....
contents himself with the robe that protects his body, and with
the alms-bowl with which he keeps himself alive. Wherever he
goes, he is provided with these two things, just as a winged
bird in flying carries its wings along with him.
fulfilling this noble domain of morality (síla) he feels
in his heart an irreproachable happiness."
what follows thereafter it is shown how the disciple watches
over his 5 senses and his mind, and by this noble restraint
of the senses (indriya-samvara) feels in his heart an
unblemished happiness; how in all his actions he is ever mindful
and clearly conscious; and how, being equipped with this lofty
morality (síla), and with this noble restraint of the
senses (indriya-samvara), and with mindfulness and clear
consciousness (sati-sampajañña), he choses a secluded
dwelling, and freeing his mind from the 5 hindrances (nívarana,
q.v.) he reaches full concentration (samádhi, q.v.);
and how thereafter, by developing insight (vipassaná q.v.)
with regard to the impermanency (anicca), misery (dukkha)
and impersonality (anattá, q.v.) of all phenomena of
existence, he finally realizes deliverance from all cankers
and defilements, and thus the assurance arises in him:
ever am I liberated,
is the last time I am born,
new existence waits for me."
D.1, 2f; M. 27, 38, 51, 60, 76; A. IV, 198; X, 99: Pug. 239,
anantara, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
'remembrance of former births', is one of the higher powers
(abhiññá, q.v.), and a factor of threefold knowledge
'individual', 'person', as well as the synonyms: personality,
individuality, being (satta), self (attá), etc.,
in short all terms designating a personal entity, hence also:
I, you, he, man, god, etc., all these, according to Buddhism,
are mere names for certain combinations of material and mental
processes, and apart from them they have no real existence.
They are to be considered as mere 'conventional modes of expression'
(vohára-vacana), and on that level they may be used,
and are so used in the sutta texts, if taken "without misapprehending
them" (s. quote from D. 9 under paramattha). With
such tacit reservations, the term puggala occurs quite
frequently in the suttas.
the ultimate sense (paramattha, q.v.), however, there
exist only ever-changing physical and mental phenomena, flashing
up and dying every moment. - Kath., in its first section, discusses
the question whether "in the absolute sense, any personality
(puggala) can be found" (s. Guide, pp. 62ff). -
See paramattha, anattá.
(1) honour, respect, homage, (2) worship, devotional observances,
devotional offerings; also offerings to monks.
The Mahá-mangala Sutta (Sn. 259) says that "Honour and
respect towards those worthy of it, is conducive to great blessing"
(pújá ca pújaniyesu etam mangalam uttamarn). See Dhp.
The Buddha did not think much of mere outer worship. "Not
thus, Ananda, is the Tathágata respected, venerated, esteemed,
worshipped and honoured in the highest degree. But, Ananda,
whatsoever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, lay man or lay woman, abides
by the Teaching, lives uprightly in the Teaching, walks in the
way of the Teaching, it is by him that the Tathágata is respected,
venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the highest
degree" (D. 16). - "There are two kinds of worship:
in a material way (ámisa-pújá) and through (practice
of) the Dhamma (dhamma-pújá). The worship through (practice
of) the Dhamma is the better of the two" (A. II).
lit.: re-becoming; 'renewed existence', is a sutta term
for 'rebirth', which, in later literature mostly is called patisandhi
(q.v.). The attainment of Sainthood (arahatta), implying
the end of future rebirths, is often expressed in the words:
"This is the last birth. Now there is no more a renewed
existence!" (natthi 'dáni punabbhavo) (M. 26; D.
15; Therag. 87, 339; Sn. 502). - The term is often linked with
how, o brother, does it come to renewed existence and arising
in the future (áyatim punabbhavábhinibbatti)? Because
beings, obstructed by ignorance and fettered by craving, find
ever fresh delight now here, now there, for this reason there
is renewed existence and arising in the future" (M. 43).
See also S.XII. 38. Abhinibbatti also stands sometimes
alone in signifying 'rebirth', e.g. in A. VI, 61; X, 65.
in the 2nd Truth, the adj. ponobhavika, 'leading to renewed
A. III, 76; Sn. 163, 273, 514, 733; S. VII, 12; X, 3.
merit, meritorious, is a popular term for karmically wholesome
(kusala) action. Opposite terms: apuñña, 'demerit';
pápa, 'bad', 'evil', The value of meritorious action is
often stressed, e.g., in the Treasure Store Sutta (s. Khp. Tr.),
Dhp 18, 118, 122. - The Community of Holy Monks (ariya-sangha),
the third Refuge (s. ti-sarana), is said to be "the
incomparable field of merit in the world" (anuttaram
puññakkhettam lokassa); s. anussati 3. The Arahats,
however, having transcended all life-affirming and rebirth-producing
actions, are said to be "beyond merit and demerit";
see Sn. 520, 547, 636, 790. - See foll. 3 articles.
'meritorious karma-formations' of the sensuous and fine-material
sphere; s. sankhára I. 1.
'streams of merit'. It is said that one produces 4 streams
of merit by offering the 4 requisites (robes, almsfood, dwelling,
medicine) to a monk who has reached the conditionless deliverance
of mind; further by being filled with unshakable faith in the
Buddha, his doctrine and community of disciples, and by being
perfect in morality (A. IV, 51, 52). A. VIII, 39 describes 4
further streams of merit.
'bases of meritorious action'. In the suttas, 3 are mentioned
consisting of giving (liberality; dána-maya-p.), of morality
(síla-maya-p.) and of mental development (meditation;
bhávaná-maya-p.). See D. 33; It. 60; expl. in A. VIII,
have a list of ten (dasa p.) which is very popular in
Buddhist countries: (1)-(3) as above, (4) reverence (apaciti),
(5) service (veyyávacca), (6) transference of merit (pattánuppadána),
(7) rejoicing in others' merit (abbhánumodana), (8) expounding
the Doctrine (desaná), (9) listening to the Doctrine
(savana), (10) straightening one's right views (rectification
of views; ditthujukamma). - Expl. in Atthasálini Tr.
'The Advantages of Merit', by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (BODHI
LEAVES B. 38).
abodes: suddhávása (q.v.).
'pre-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
the 7 stages of; s. visuddhi.
'Virility'; s. bháva, khandha.
the elements of the effort for: párisuddhipadhániyanga
lit.: 'one of the many folk', 'worldling', ordinary man,
is any layman or monk who is still possessed of all the 10 fetters
(samyojana, q.v.) binding to the round of rebirths, and
therefore has not yet reached any of the 4 stages of holiness
is neither freed from the 3 fetters (personality-belief, sceptical
doubt, attachment to mere rule and ritual), nor is on the way
to lose these 3 things, such a one is called a worlding"
to Com. to M. 9, a 'worlding' may be (1) an outsider (a non-Buddhist)
who, if he believed in moral causation, may be said to have
right view to that extent; but he has not the 'knowledge conforming
to the Truths' (saccánulomika-ñána), as has (2) the 'worldling
inside the Buddha's Dispensation' (sásanika). A worlding
who professes Buddhism, may be either a 'blind worldling' (andha-p.)
who has neither knowledge of, nor interest in the fundamental
teaching (the Truths, groups, etc.); or he is a 'noble worldling'
(kalyána-p.), who has such knowledge and earnestly strives
to understand and practise the Teaching. - See Atthasálini Tr.
II, 451 (tr. by 'average man'); Com. to M. 1, D. 1.