(lit. 'name'): 'mind', mentality. This term is generally
used as a collective name for the 4 mental groups (arúpino
khandha), viz. feeling (vedaná), perception (saññá),
mental formations (sankhára) and consciousness (viññána).
Within the 4th link (náma-rúpa) in the formula of the
paticcasamuppáda (q.v.), however, it applies only to
karma-resultant (vipáka) feeling and perception and a
few karma-resultant mental functions inseparable from any consciousness.
As it is said (M. 9; D. 15; S. XII, 2): "Feeling (vedaná),
perception (saññá), volition (cetaná), impression
(phassa), mental advertence (manasikára): this,
o brother, is called mind (náma)." With the addition
of 2 more mental factors, namely, mental vitality (jívita)
and concentration (samádhi), here 'stationary phase of
mind' (cittatthiti), these 7 factors are said in the
Abhidhammattha Sangaha to be the inseparable mental factors
in any state of consciousness.
the complete list of all the 50 mental formations of the sankhára-kkhandha
(not including feeling and perception), s. Tab. II.
the 'mind-group' (as distinguished from rúpa-káya,
the corporeality-group) comprises the 4 immaterial groups of
existence (arúpino khandhá; s. khandha). This
twofold grouping, frequent in Com., occurs first in D. 15, also
in Pts.M. (I, 183); náma-káya alone is mentioned in Sn.
(lit. 'name and form'): 'mind-and-body', mentality and corporeality.
It is the 4th link in the dependent origination (s. paticcasamuppáda
3, 4) where it is conditioned by consciousness, and on its part
is the condition of the sixfold sense-base. In two texts (D.
14, 15), which contain variations of the dependent origination,
the mutual conditioning of consciousness and mind-and-body is
described (see also S. XII, 67), and the latter is said to be
a condition of sense-impression (phassa); so also in
third of the seven purifications (s. visuddhi), the purification
of views, is defined in Vis.M. XVIII as the "correct seeing
of mind-and-body," and various methods for the discernment
of mind-and-body by way of insight-meditation (vipassaná,
q.v.) are given there. In this context, 'mind' (náma)
comprises all four mental groups, including consciousness. -
five-group-existence (pañca-vokára-bhava, q.v.), mind-and
body are inseparable and interdependent; and this has been illustrated
by comparing them with two sheaves of reeds propped against
each other: when one falls the other will fall, too; and with
a blind man with stout legs, carrying on his shoulders a lame
cripple with keen eye-sight: only by mutual assistance can they
move about efficiently (s. Vis.M. XVIII, 32ff). On their mutual
dependence, see also paticca-samuppáda (3).
regard to the impersonality and dependent nature of mind and
corporeality it is said:
is not a thing that dwells inside the conch-shell and comes
out from time to time, but due to both, the conch-shell and
the man that blows it, sound comes to arise: Just so, due to
the presence of vitality, heat and consciousness, this body
may execute the acts of going, standing, sitting and lying down,
and the 5 sense-organs and the mind may perform their various
functions" (D. 23).
as a wooden puppet though unsubstantial, lifeless and inactive
may by means of pulling strings be made to move about, stand
up, and appear full of life and activity; just so are mind and
body, as such, something empty, lifeless and inactive; but by
means of their mutual working together, this mental and bodily
combination may move about, stand up, and appear full of life
'knowledge, comprehension, intelligence, insight', is a
synonym for paññá (q.v.); see also vipassaná.
'purification of knowledge and vision', is the last of the
7 purifications and a name for path-knowledge (maggañána),
i.e. the penetrating realization of the path of Stream-winning,
Once-returning, Non-returning or Arahatship. Vis.M. XXII furnishes
a detailed explanation of it (s. visuddhi, VII).
A. IV, 41 ñánadassana apparently means the divine eye
(dibbacakkhu, s. abhiññá), being produced through
concentrating the mind on light.
The 'variety (or multiformity) - perceptions are explained
under jhána (q.v.).
iddhi: the 'power of penetrating knowledge', is one of the
magical powers (iddhi, q.v.).
'full understanding (or comprehension) of the known', is
one of the 3 kinds of full understanding (pariññá q.v.).
'nihilistic view' (a doctrine that all values are baseless,
that nothing is knowable or can be communicated, and that life
itself is meaningless), s. ditthi.
'absence-condition', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
morality: pakati-síla (q.v.).
(or satthu)- sásana: s. sásana.
s. kalápa (2).
'right method', is often used as a name for the Noble Eightfold
Path (s. magga), e.g. in the Satipatthána Sutta (M. 10,
upacára-samádhi (q.v.) .
'freedom from sensual lust', renunciation. Though apparently
from nir + Ö kram,
'to go forth (into the homeless state of a monk)', this term
is in the Páli texts nevertheless used as if it were derived
from káma, lust, and always as an antonym to káma.
It is one of the perfections (s. páramí). N.
sankappa, thought free from lust, or thought of renunciation,
is one of the 3 kinds of right thought (sammá-sankappa),
the 2nd link of the Noble Eightfold Path (s. magga,
2), its antonym being kámasankappa, lustful thought.
one of the 13 dhutanga (q.v.).
karmically: avyákata (q.v.); n. feelings, s. vedaná.
The 'sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception', is
the name for the fourth absorption of the immaterial sphere
(arúpávacara), a semi-conscious state, which is surpassed
only by the state of complete suspense of consciousness, called
'attainment of extinction' (nirodha-samápatti, q.v.).
See jhána (8).
'neither in training nor beyond training', i.e. neither
learner nor master. Thus is called the worldling (puthujjana,
q.v.), for he is neither pursuing the 3-fold training (sikkhá
q.v.) in morality, mental culture and wisdom, on the level
of the first 3 paths of sanctity, nor has he completed his training
as an Arahat. See sekha. - (App.).
'requiring guidance', is said of a person "who through
advice and questioning, through wise consideration, and through
frequenting noble-minded friends, having intercourse with them,
associating with them, gradually comes to penetrate the truth"
(Pug. 162). Cf. ugghatitaññú.
A 'teaching the meaning of which is implicit, or has to
be inferred' as contrasted with a 'teaching with an explicit
or evident meaning' (nítattha-dhamma). In A. I, 60 (PTS)
it is said: "Whoso declares a sutta with an implicit meaning
as a sutta with explicit meaning (and conversely), such a one
makes a false statement with regard to the Blessed One."
- See paramattha.
(Sanskrit nirvána): lit. 'extinction' (nir
+ Ö va,
to cease blowing, to become extinguished); according to the
commentaries, 'freedom from desire' (nir+ vana). Nibbána
constitutes the highest and ultimate goal of all Buddhist aspirations,
i.e. absolute extinction of that life-affirming will manifested
as greed, hate and delusion, and convulsively clinging to existence;
and therewith also the ultimate and absolute deliverance from
all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffering
and misery. Cf. Parinibbána.
of greed, extinction of hate, extinction of delusion: this is
called Nibbána" (S. XXXVIII. 1).
2 aspects of Nibbána are:
The full extinction of defilements (kilesa-parinibbána),
also called sa-upádi-sesa-nibbána (s. It. 41), i.e.
'Nibbána with the groups of existence still remaining' (s. upádi).
This takes place at the attainment of Arahatship, or perfect
holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
The full extinction of the groups of existence (khandha-parinibbána),
also called an-upádi-sesa-nibbána (s. It. 41, A. IV,
118), i.e. 'Nibbána without the groups remaining', in other
words, the coming to rest, or rather the 'no-more-continuing'
of this physico-mental process of existence. This takes place
at the death of the Arahat. - (App.: Nibbána).
both aspects take place at one and the same moment, i.e. at
the death of the Arahat; s. sama-sísí.
o monks, truly is the peace, this is the highest, namely the
end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of
rebirth, the fading away of craving, detachment, extinction,
Nibbána" (A. III, 32).
with lust (rága), enraged with anger (dosa), blinded
by delusion (moha), overwhelmed, with mind ensnared,
man aims at his own ruin, at the ruin of others, at the ruin
of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. But if lust,
anger and delusion are given up, man aims neither at his own
ruin, nor at the ruin of others, nor at the ruin of both, and
he experiences no mental pain and grief. Thus is Nibbána visible
in this life, immediate, inviting, attractive, and comprehensible
to the wise" (A. III, 55).
as a rock of one solid mass remains unshaken by the wind, even
so neither visible forms, nor sounds, nor odours, nor tastes,
nor bodily impressions, neither the desired nor the undesired,
can cause such a one to waver. Steadfast is his mind, gained
is deliverance" (A, VI, 55).
there is an Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed. If there
were not this Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed, escape
from the world of the born, the originated, the created, the
formed, would not be possible" (Ud. VIII, 3).
cannot too often and too emphatically stress the fact that not
only for the actual realization of the goal of Nibbána, but
also for a theoretical understanding of it, it is an indispensable
preliminary condition to grasp fully the truth of anattá
(q.v.), the egolessness and insubstantiality of all forms of
existence. Without such an understanding, one will necessarily
misconceive Nibbána - according to one's either materialistic
or metaphysical leanings - either as annihilation of an ego,
or as an eternal state of existence into which an ego or self
enters or with which it merges. Hence it is said:
suffering exists, no sufferer is found;
deed is, but no doer of the deed is there;
is, but not the man that enters it;
path is, but no traveler on it is seen."
For texts on Nibbána, see Path, 36ff. - See Vis.M. XVI.
64ff. - Anattá and Nibbána, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL
11); The Buddhist Doctrine of Nibbána, by Ven. P. Vajiranana
& F. Story (WHEEL 165/166).
'arising', 'rebirth', is a synonym for patisandhi
(-samádhi, -paññá): 'morality (concentration, wisdom)
connected with penetration'; s. hána-bhágiya-síla.
'contemplation of aversion', is one of the 18 chief kinds
of insight; s. vipassaná (4), samatha-vipassaná
(2), visuddhi (VI, 5).
(-citta,-ditthi): perception (or consciousness, or
view) of permanency, is one of the 4 perversions (vipallása,
view: natthika-ditthi; s. ditthi.
'blue-kasina exercise' s. kasina.
mark, sign; image; target, object; cause, condition. These
meanings are used in, and adapted to, many contexts of which
only the doctrinal ones are mentioned here.
'Mental (reflex-) image', obtained in meditation. In full clarity,
it will appear in the mind by successful practice of certain
concentration-exercises and will then appear as vividly as if
seen by the eye. The object perceived at the very beginning
of concentration is called the preparatory image (parikamma-nimitta).
The still unsteady and unclear image, which arises when the
mind has reached a weak degree of concentration, is called the
acquired image (uggaha-nimitta). An entirely clear and
immovable image arising at a higher degree of concentration
is the counter-image (patibhága-nimitta). As soon as
this image arises, the stage of neighbourhood (or access) concentration
(upacára-samádhi) is reached. For further details, s.
'Sign of (previous) kamma' (kamma-nimitta) and 'sign
of (the future) destiny' (gati-nimitta); these arise
as mental objects of the last karmic consciousness before death
(maranásanna-kamma; s. karma, III, 3).
(1) and (2) are commentarial (s. App.). In sutta usage, the
term occurs, e.g. as:
'Outward appearance': of one who has sense-control it is said-
that "he does not seize upon the general appearance' of
an object (na nimittaggáhí; M. 38, D. 2; expl. Vis I,
54f; see síla).
'Object': the six objects, i.e. visual, etc. (rúpa-nimitta;
S. XXII, 3). Also, when in explanation of animitta-cetovimutti,
signless deliverance of mind (s. cetovimutti, vimokkha),
it is said, 'sabba-nimittánam amanasikárá', it refers
to the 6 sense-objects (Com. to M. 43), and has therefore to
be rendered "by paying no attention to any object (or object-ideas)."
- A pleasant or beautiful object (subha-nimitta, q.v.)
is a condition to the arising of the hindrance of sense-desire;
a 'repellent object' (patigha-nimitta) for the hindrance
of ill-will; contemplation on the impurity of an object (asubha-nimitta;
s. asubha) is an antidote to sense-desire.
In Pts.M. II, in a repetitive series of terms, nimitta
appears together with uppádo (origin of existence), pavattam
(continuity of existence), and may then be rendered by 'condition
of existence' (s. Path, 194f.).
the name of a class of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere;
abodes of beings: s. sattávása.
dispensation: s: sásana.
'produced corporeality', is identical with rúpa-rúpa,
'corporeality proper', i.e. material or actual corporeality,
as contrasted with 'unproduced corporeality' (anipphanna-rúpa),
consisting of mere qualities or modes of corporeality, e.g.
impermanence, etc., which are also enumerated among the 28 phenomena
of the corporeality group. See khandha, Summary I; Vis.M.
lit. 'the downward-path', the nether or infernal world,
usually translated by 'hell', is one of the 4 lower courses
of existence (apáya, q.v.). The Buddhists are well aware
that on account of the universal sway of impermanence a life
in hell, just as in heaven, cannot last eternally, but will
after exhaustion of the karma which has caused the respective
form of rebirth, necessarily be followed again by a new death
and a new rebirth, according to the stored-up karma.
'extinction'; s. nirodha-samápatti, anupubba-nirodha.
'contemplation of extinction', is one of the 18 chief kinds
of insight (vipassaná q.v.). See ánápánasati (15).
'attainment of extinction' (S. XIV, 11), also called saññá-vedayita-nirodha,
'extinction of feeling and perception', is the temporary
suspension of all consciousness and mental activity, following
immediately upon the semi-conscious state called 'sphere of
neither-perception-nor-non-perception' (s. jhána, 8).
The absolutely necessary pre-conditions to its attainment are
said to be perfect mastery of all the 8 absorptions (jhána),
as well as the previous attainment of Anágámi or Arahatship
to Vis.M. XXIII, the entering into this state takes place in
the following way: by means of mental tranquillity (samatha)
and insight (vipassaná) one has to pass through all the
8 absorptions one after the other up to the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
and then one has to bring this state to an end. If, namely,
according to the Vis.M., the disciple (Anágámi or Arahat) passes
through the absorption merely by means of tranquillity, i.e.
concentration, he will only attain the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,
and then come to a standstill; if, on the other hand, he proceeds
only with insight, he will reach the fruition (phala)
of Anágámi or Arahatship. He, however, who by means of both
faculties has risen from absorption to absorption and, having
made the necessary preparations, brings the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
to an end, such a one reaches the state of extinction. Whilst
the disciple is passing through the 8 absorptions, he each time
emerges from the absorption attained, and regards with his insight
all the mental phenomena constituting that special absorption,
as impermanent, miserable and impersonal. Then he again enters
the next higher absorption, and thus, after each absorption
practising insight, he at last reaches the state of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,
and thereafter the full extinction. This state, according to
the Com., may last for 7 days or even longer. Immediately at
the rising from this state, however, there arises in the Anágámi
the fruition of Anágámiship (anágámi-phala), in the Arahat
the fruition of Arahatship (arahatta-phala).
regard to the difference existing between the monk abiding in
this state of extinction on the one hand, and a dead person
on the other hand, M 43 says: "In him who is dead, and
whose life has come to an end, the bodily (in-and-outbreathing),
verbal (thought-conception and discursive thinking), and mental
functions (s. sankhára, 2) have become suspended and
come to a standstill, life is exhausted, the vital heat extinguished,
the faculties are destroyed. Also in the monk who has reached
'extinction of perception and feeling' (saññá-vedayita-nirodha),
the bodily, verbal and mental functions have been suspended
and come to a standstill, but life is not exhausted, the vital
heat not extinguished, and the faculties are not destroyed."
details, see Vis.M. XXIII; for texts s. Path 206.
the 'analytical knowledge of language', is one of the 4
(Sanskrit= ) Nibbána (q.v.).
'overcoming by escape', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming
'foundation'. The 2 wrong foundations of morality are craving
(tanhá-nissaya) and views (ditthi-nissaya). Hence
there are two wrong bases of morality: morality based on craving
(tanhá-nissita-síla) and morality based on views (ditthi-nissita-síla).
'Based on craving' is that kind of morality which has come about
by the desire for a happy existence, e.g.: 'O that by this morality
I might become a godlike or heavenly being!' (A.IX, 172). 'Based
on views' is that morality which has been induced by the view
that through the observation of certain moral rules purification
may be attained" (Vis.M. I).
'support', base, foundation, is one of the 24 conditions
(s. paccaya, 8).
A 'doctrine with evident meaning', contrasted with a 'doctrine
with a meaning to be inferred' (neyyattha-dhamma, q.v.).
See also paramattha.
'hindrances', are 5 qualities which are obstacles to the
mind and blind our mental vision. In the presence of them we
cannot reach neighbourhood-concentration (upacára-samádhi)
and full concentration (appaná-samádhi), and are
unable to discern clearly the truth. They are:
sensuous desire (kámacchanda),
sloth and torpor (thína-middha),
restlessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca), and
skeptical doubt (vicikicchá; q.v.).
the beautiful similes in A. V, 193, sensuous desire is compared
with water mixed with manifold colours, ill-will with boiling
water, sloth and torpor with water covered by moss, restlessness
and scruples with agitated water whipped by the wind, skeptical
doubt with turbid and muddy water. Just as in such water one
cannot perceive one's own reflection, so in the presence of
these 5 mental hindrances, one cannot clearly discern one's
own benefit, nor that of others, nor that of both.
the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances on entering the
first absorption, the stereotype sutta text (e g. A. IX, 40)
runs as follows:
has cast away sensuous desire; he dwells with a heart free from
sensuous desire; from desire he cleanses his heart.
has cast away ill-will; he dwells with a heart free from ill-will,
cherishing love and compassion toward all living beings, he
cleanses his heart from ill-will.
has cast away sloth and torpor; he dwells free from sloth and
torpor; loving the light, with watchful mind, with clear consciousness,
he cleanses his mind from sloth and torpor.
has cast away restlessness and scruples; dwelling with mind
undisturbed, with heart full of peace, he cleanses his mind
from restlessness and scruples.
has cast away skeptical doubt; dwelling free from doubt, full
of confidence in the good, he cleanses his heart from doubt.
has put aside these 5 hindrances, and come to know these paralysing
defilements of the mind. And far from sensual impressions, far
from unwholesome things, he enters into the first absorption,
overcoming of these 5 hindrances by the absorptions is, as already
pointed out, a merely temporary suspension, called 'overcoming
through repression' (vikkhambhana-pahána). They disappear
forever on entering the 4 supermundane paths (s. ariyapuggala),
i.e. skeptical doubt on reaching Sotápanship; sensuous desire,
ill-will and mental worry on reaching Anágámiship; sloth, torpor
and restlessness on reaching Arahatship.
their origination and their overcoming, s. A. I, 2; VI, 21;
S. XLVI, 51.
The Five Mental Hindrances, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL
the 'fixedness of law' regarding all things; cf. tathatá.
- Pañca-niyáma is a commentarial term, signifying the
'fivefold lawfulness' or 'natural order' that governs: (1) temperature,
seasons and other physical events (utu-niyáma); (2) the
plant life (bíja-n.); (3) karma (kamma-n.); (4)
the mind (citta-n.), e.g. the lawful sequence of the
functions of consciousness (s. viññána-kicca) in the
process of cognition; (5) certain events connected with the
Dhamma (dhamma-n.), e.g. the typical events occurring
in the lives of the Buddhas. (App.).
'wrong views with fixed destiny', are the views of uncausedness
of existence (ahetuka-ditthi), of the inefficacy of action
(akiriya-ditthi), and nihilism (natthika-ditthi).
For details, s. ditthi; and M. 60, Com. (WHEEL 98/99).
a 'person with a fixed destiny', may be either one who has
committed one of the 5 'heinous deeds with immediate result'
(ánantarika-kamma, q.v.), or one who follows 'wrong views
with fixed destiny' (niyata-micchá-ditthi, q.v.), or
one who has reached one of the 4 stages of holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
About the latter cf. the frequent passage: "Those disciples
in whom the 3 fetters (of personality-belief, sceptical doubt
and attachment to mere rules and ritual; s. samyojana)
have vanished, they all have entered the stream, have forever
escaped the states of woe; fixed is their destiny (niyata),
assured their final enlightenment."
abodes: s. vihára.
family, Passing from n.f. to n.f.: kolankola;
persons: ariya-puggala (q.v.).
power: ariya iddhi; s. iddhi.
truths, the 4: ariya-sacca; s. sacca. - The
2-fold knowledge of the n.t.; s. sacca-ñána.
usages, the 4: ariya-vamsa (q.v.).
avigata-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
'underived corporeality', designates the 4 primary elements
(mahábhúta or dhátu), as distinguished from the
'derived corporeality' (upádá-rúpa), such as the sensitive
organs, etc. Cf. khandha, I.
s. ojá, áhára. - áhára is one of the 24 conditions
(paccaya, q.v.) - n.- produced corporeality; s.